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Found at: raymii.org:70/Raspberry_Pi_Raspbian_Unattended_Upgrade_Jessie_to_Testing.txt

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Title       : 	Raspberry Pi unattended upgrade Raspbian to Debian Testing
Author      : 	Remy van Elst
Date        : 	27-07-2016
URL         : 	https://raymii.org/s/blog/Raspberry_Pi_Raspbian_Unattended_Upgrade_Jessie_to_Testing.html
Format      : 	Markdown/HTML
I'm working on a Nitrokey/SmartCard-HSM cluster article and therefore I needed
three identical computers. The current version of Raspbian (2016-05-27) is based
on Debian Jessie and comes with a version of OpenSC that is too old (0.14) to
work with the Nitrokey/SmartCard-HSM. Since there is no Ubuntu 16.04 official
image yet I decided to upgrade Raspbian to Debian Testing. Since I don't want to
answer yes to any config file changes or service restarts I figured out how to
do an unattended dist-upgrade.
> The 3-Pi HSM cluster to be used for the cluster articles

I'm developing an open source monitoring app called Leaf Node Monitoring, for windows, linux & android. Go check it out!

Consider sponsoring me on Github. It means the world to me if you show your appreciation and you'll help pay the server costs.

You can also sponsor me by getting a Digital Ocean VPS. With this referral link you'll get $100 credit for 60 days.

The [Nitrokey HSM][3] is an open hardware and open software device. It is a USB
version of the [SmartCard-HSM][4]. Both the [SmartCard-HSM][5] as the [Nitrokey
HSM][6] have sources available and are fully supported by the [OpenSC][7]
I have multiple [articles on][8] the [Nitrokey HSM/SmartCard-HSM][9]. I also
have a lot of professional experience with large expensive HSM hardware.
### ARM repositories
Since Raspbian is a fork of Debian I first checked if there were any testing
repositories in [the mirrors][10] and as it turns out, [there are][11]. Since
the current version ships with `OpenSC 0.14` and there is a `0.16` package in
the repo [here][12] I suspected that that was the testing package. Installing it
on Jessie failed however, so a `dist-upgrade` it was.
### dist-upgrade
A regular repository change in `sources.list` and a `dist-upgrade` are very
interactive. It involves manual editing and the `apt` upgrade asks a lot of
questions, for example, retain a config file, restart services, changelogs, etc.
Since I tend to reinstall Pi SD cards often I don't want to do that manual
process every time. So here are the commands to do an unattended upgrade to
`testing`. Which in my case works the 7 times I tried now, without asking
questions. Do note that in your case it might hose your Pi and destroy all data
and projects on it, **so make sure you have a tested working backup**.
Place this in a file named `upgrade.sh`:
    # vim upgrade.sh
    # Remove any third party sources
    rm -rf /etc/apt/sources.list.d/*
    # Change te repo's
    sed -i -e 's/jessie/testing/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
    # Update package lists
    apt-get update
    DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive DEBIAN_PRIORITY=critical apt-get -q -y -o "Dpkg::Options::=--force-confdef" -o "Dpkg::Options::=--force-confold" dist-upgrade
    # Remove no longer needed packages
    DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive DEBIAN_PRIORITY=critical apt-get -q -y -o "Dpkg::Options::=--force-confdef" -o "Dpkg::Options::=--force-confold" autoremove --purge
Save it and then run it to start the upgrade:
    bash ./upgrade.sh
### Debian upgrade, unattended explanation
Debian packages can prompt a user during install to generate custom
configuration, or in the case of MySQL, set a root password. It can also have
messages with different priorities. The `critical` priority is (almost) never
used so it won't prompt you. The `noninteractive` frontend tells the terminal
that you're not able to answer any questions.
The two `Dpkg::Options` mean the following:
  * `--force-confdef`: upgrade the configuration file if there are no local changes
  * `--force-confold`: otherwise, preserve the existing configuration file
If you supply `--force-confnew` instead of `--force-confold` it will overwrite
any changes by the new config file.
If you want to install a package unattended you know will ask questions (like
MySQL), then you can use `debconf` to set the answer to those questions
beforehand (scriptable, yay). In the case of MySQL on 12.04:
    echo mysql-server-5.5 mysql-server/root_password password P@ssw0rd | debconf-set-selections
    echo mysql-server-5.5 mysql-server/root_password_again password P@ss0wrd | debconf-set-selections
You can view all possible selections (questions) with the `debconf-get-
selections` command:
    debconf-get-selections | grep mysql-server
    mysql-server-5.5  mysql-server/root_password_again  password  
    mysql-server-5.5  mysql-server/root_password  password  
    mysql-server-5.5  mysql-server/error_setting_password error 
    mysql-server-5.5  mysql-server-5.5/postrm_remove_databases  boolean false
    mysql-server-5.5  mysql-server-5.5/start_on_boot  boolean true
If `debconf` is not installed, the package `debconf-utils` provides it.
   [1]: https://raymii.org/s/inc/img/hsmcluster.jpg
   [2]: https://www.digitalocean.com/?refcode=7435ae6b8212
   [3]: http://nitrokey.com
   [4]: http://www.smartcard-hsm.com/
   [5]: http://www.smartcard-hsm.com/opensource.html
   [6]: https://github.com/nitrokey
   [7]: https://github.com/OpenSC/OpenSC/wiki/SmartCardHSM
   [8]: https://raymii.org/s/articles/Get_Started_With_The_Nitrokey_HSM.html
   [9]: https://raymii.org/s/articles/Nitrokey_HSM_in_Apache_with_mod_nss.html
   [10]: http://mirrordirector.raspbian.org/raspbian/dists/
   [11]: http://mirrordirector.raspbian.org/raspbian/dists/testing/
   [12]: http://mirrordirector.raspbian.org/raspbian/pool/main/o/opensc/
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