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Found at: raymii.org:70/IPv6_at_Home.txt

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---
Title       : 	IPv6 at Home
Author      : 	Remy van Elst
Date        : 	03-05-2014
URL         : 	https://raymii.org/s/blog/IPv6_at_Home.html
Format      : 	Markdown/HTML
---
![ipv6-ready][1]
For a long time most of my VPS are IPv6 enabled. Raymii.org is reachable over
IPv6. I've not had IPv6 at home yet, over my residential DSL line. And as you
know, providers are not that fast with rolling out IPv6 at home. A friend
pointed me to SixXS, which provide IPv6 tunnels. I had looked at them in the
past, only then you needed to have a static IP for the tunnel. These days you
don't need that anymore. Read on to find out how my IPv6 setup works, including
privacy extensions and a few annoyances with Arch Linux and Ubuntu.

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### The Tunnel
The tunnel is provided by [SixXS][3]. It is an [AYIYA][4] tunnel, AYIYA is a
protocol for managing IP tunneling protocols in use between separated IP
networks. It is most often used to provide IPv6 transit over an IPv4 network
link when network address translation masquerades a private network with a
single IP address that may change frequently because of DHCP provisioning by
Internet service providers.
Which basically means that you can use it to easily set up an IPv6 tunnel which
works over a NATted LAN and thus you don't need a static IP anymore. As example,
even at Starbucks I can set up my IPv6 tunnel without any hassle.
At SixXS you need to register and request a tunnel. You will need to provide
some information, which will be validated, so make sure it is correct. Then you
also need to provide a reason for your tunnel. Mine was just a simple one, I
want to experiment at home with IPv6. They find that a valid reason, so in two
days I had my tunnel data.
### Tunnel setup
My DSL provider modem does not support IPv6 sadly, so I've spun up a Virtual
Machine which will do the routing for IPv6. It is an Ubuntu 12.04 server machine
on KVM. OpenVZ wo'nt work because of the advanced networking involved. It also
will work on a Raspberry Pi with Raspbian, for those who do not want or have a
(VM) server running all the time.
You will need all your SixXS data, as in, your account, tunnel and subnet.
First install [AICCU][5]. It stands for: Automatic IPv6 Connectivity Client
Utility. It is a tool to automatically configure IPv6 connectivity on a variety
of platforms and it provides AYIYA and heartbeat protocol support.
    
    
    apt-get install aiccu
    
During the installation you will be asked for your SixXS username and password.
These are the ones you use to login to the SixXS website.
If you only have one tunnel and subnet, it will all be set up automagically. I
don't have multiple tunnels yet, but I expect it will require more
configuration.
I had to change one line in the aiccu config file to make it work.
    
    
    vim /etc/aiccu.conf
    
Change the following from false to true and make sure it is not commented out:
    
    
    behindnat true
    
Now we can start the aiccu daemon:
    
    
    /etc/init.d/aiccu start
    
If you type the `ip a` command you should now see a new SixXS interface:
    
    
    8: sixxs:  mtu 1280 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN qlen 500
        link/none 
        inet6 2001:[...]998::2/64 scope global 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    
We can test it some more by accessing [Google over IPv6][6]:
    
    
    curl -g [2a00:1450:4013:c00::64]
    
The `-g` option is needed otherwise you will get either an `curl: (3) [globbing]
error: bad range specification after pos 2` or an `curl: (3) IPv6 numerical
address used in URL without brackets` error. See bug #30 on the [Curl known bugs
page][7]
Response:
    
    
    
    302 Moved
    

302 Moved

    The document has moved
    here.
    
    
### The routing
The router needs to be able to forward IPv6 packets, so let's enable that. Edit
`/etc/sysctl.conf`:
    
    
    vim /etc/sysctl.conf
    
Add or uncomment the following:
    
    
    net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1
    
Apply the rule:
    
    
    sysctl -p
    
To give other machines an IPv6 address we need to install `radvd` and `dhcpv6`.
Radvd will be used to provide addresses via [SLAAC][8] and dhcpv6 will provide
compatibility and DNS addresses.
    
    
    apt-get install wide-dhcpv6-server radvd
    
Configure Radvd via `/etc/radvd.conf`:
    
    
    vim /etc/radvd.conf
    
This is the config I use:
    
    
    interface eth0 {
          AdvSendAdvert on ;
          # Advertise at least every 30 seconds
          MaxRtrAdvInterval 30;
          # in order to force non RFC 6106 compliant clients to get a dns address
          AdvOtherConfigFlag on ;
          prefix $YOURSUBNET$/64 {
            AdvOnLink on;
            AdvAutonomous on;
          };
          RDNSS 2001:14b8:0:3401::6 2001:1418:10:2::2 {
          };
    };
    
Replace `$YOURSUBNET$` with one of the subnets you gave from SixXS. The `RDNSS`
option uses the europian DNS from SixXS. You can find other DNS cache servers
[here][8].
Now configure DHCPv6:
    
    
    vim /etc/wide-dhcpv6/dhcp6s.conf
    
It has only the following line, to provide DNS:
    
    
    option domain-name-servers 2001:14b8:0:3401::6 2001:1418:10:2::2;
    
Here again you should use the SixXS DNS cache servers in your region.
Restart them both:
    
    
    /etc/init.d/radvd restart
    /etc/init.d/wide-dhcpv6-server restart
    
### Privacy extensions
The global address is used in IPv6 to communicate with the outside world. This
is thus the one that is used as source for any communication and thus in a way
identify you on Internet. The global address is built by using the prefix and
adding an identifier build with the hardware address.
For example, the hardware address is 00:22:15:64:42:bd and the global IPv6
address is ending with 22:15ff:fe64:42bd. It is thus easy to go from the IPv6
global address to the hardware address. To fix this issue and increase the
privacy of network user, privacy extensions have been developed.
You can read the RFC [here][9], it describes how to build and use temporary
addresses that will be used as source address for connection to the outside
world. The [wikipedia][10] page describes it a bit more.
The option is documented in the [ip-sysctl.txt][11] file:
    
    
    use_tempaddr - INTEGER
        Preference for Privacy Extensions (RFC3041).
          <= 0 : disable Privacy Extensions
          == 1 : enable Privacy Extensions, but prefer public
                 addresses over temporary addresses.
          >  1 : enable Privacy Extensions and prefer temporary
                 addresses over public addresses.
        Default:  0 (for most devices)
                 -1 (for point-to-point devices and loopback devices)
    
We can enable the privacy extensions on the Ubuntu/Debian router VM by defining
it in /etc/sysctl.conf.
Edit `/etc/sysctl.conf`:
    
    
    vim /etc/sysctl.conf
    
Add the following line
    
    
    net.ipv6.conf.all.use_tempaddr=2
    
Apply it:
    
    
    sysctl -p
    
We also need to restart the network:
    
    
    /etc/init.d/networking restart
    
Using `ip a` you should now see a new address. It will expire after a while and
a new one will be added. The default expiry time is one day. It can be changed
with the following sysctl variable:
    
    
    net.ipv6.conf.eth0.temp_prefered_lft=7200
    
Where 7200 is the value in minutes. Change `eth0` to your network interface.
Don't set it to low, for me at 3600 I got errors like these:
    
    
    ipv6_create_tempaddr(): retry temporary address regeneration.
    ipv6_create_tempaddr(): regeneration time exceeded. disabled temporary
    address support.
    
There are however some [bugs][12] [in][13] [the ipv6][14] [stack][15], so it
might now all work as expected. For example, most of my laptops use Arch Linux
with NetworkManager. Arch linux does not use `/etc/sysctl.conf` but uses
`/etc/sysctl.d/00-files`. Therefore there is no `/etc/sysctl.conf` file.
Networkmanager has hardcoded that it looks in `/etc/sysctl.conf` for the privacy
extention setting. So that didn't work. You can set in in the config file for
your network, for example, `/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/name`:
    
    
    [ipv6] method=auto ip6-privacy=2
    
However, for me that didn't work until I created the `/etc/sysctl.conf` file
with the privacy setting. I needed some more settings to make it all work on
Arch:
    
    
    #cat /etc/sysctl.d/40-ipv6.conf 
    net.ipv6.conf.all.use_tempaddr = 2
    net.ipv6.conf.all.router_solicitation_delay=3
    net.ipv6.conf.all.force_tllao=1
    net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_dad=0
    net.ipv6.conf.default.use_tempaddr = 2
    
### Testing it
You should get an IPv6 address now. You can use sites like
 or by connecting to [http://ipv6.google.com][6].
   [1]: https://raymii.org/s/inc/img/ipv6-ready.png
   [2]: https://www.digitalocean.com/?refcode=7435ae6b8212
   [3]: https://www.sixxs.net/
   [4]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anything_In_Anything
   [5]: https://www.sixxs.net/tools/aiccu/
   [6]: httpL//ipv6.google.com
   [7]: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/knownbugs.html
   [8]: https://www.sixxs.net/tools/dnscache/
   [9]: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4941
   [10]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6
   [11]: http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=blob;f=Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt;hb=HEAD
   [12]: http://www.void.gr/kargig/blog/2013/02/23/linux-kernel-handling-of-ipv6-temporary-addresses-cve-2013-0343/
   [13]: http://ipv6-or-no-ipv6.blogspot.nl/2013/02/ipv6-duplicate-address-in-linux.html
   [14]: http://madduck.net/docs/ipv6/
   [15]: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=591630
---
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