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Found at: raymii.org:70/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_14.04.txt

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Title       : 	IPSEC L2TP VPN on Ubuntu 14.04 with OpenSwan, xl2tpd and ppp
Author      : 	Remy van Elst
Date        : 	01-12-2014
URL         : 	https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_14.04.html
Format      : 	Markdown/HTML

This is a guide on setting up an IPSEC/L2TP vpn server with Ubuntu 14.04 using
Openswan as the IPsec server, xl2tpd as the l2tp provider and ppp or local users
/ PAM for authentication. It has a detailed explanation with every step. We
choose the IPSEC/L2TP protocol stack because of recent vulnerabilities found in
pptpd VPNs and because it is supported on all major operating systems by

### Why a VPN?

More than ever, your freedom and privacy when online is under threat.
Governments and ISPs want to control what you can and can't see while keeping a
record of everything you do, and even the shady-looking guy lurking around your
coffee shop or the airport gate can grab your bank details easier than you may
think. A self hosted VPN lets you surf the web the way it was intended:
anonymously and without oversight.

A VPN (virtual private network) creates a secure, encrypted tunnel through which
all of your online data passes back and forth. Any application that requires an
internet connection works with this self hosted VPN, including your web browser,
email client, and instant messaging program, keeping everything you do online
hidden from prying eyes while masking your physical location and giving you
unfettered access to any website or web service no matter where you happen to
live or travel to.

This tutorial is available for the following platforms:

  * [Raspberry Pi with Arch Linux ARM][1]

  * [CentOS 7, Scientific Linux 7 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (IKEv2,no L2TP)][2]

  * [CentOS 6, Scientific Linux 6 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6][3]

  * [Ubuntu 16.04, (IKEv2,no L2TP)][4]

  * [Ubuntu 15.10, (IKEv2,no L2TP)][5]

  * [Ubuntu 15.04, (IKEv2,no L2TP)][6]

  * [Ubuntu 14.04 LTS][7]

  * [Ubuntu 13.10][8]

  * [Ubuntu 13.04][9]

  * [Ubuntu 12.10][10]

  * [Ubuntu 12.04 LTS][11]

I'm developing an open source monitoring app called Leaf Node Monitoring, for windows, linux & android. Go check it out!

Consider sponsoring me on Github. It means the world to me if you show your appreciation and you'll help pay the server costs.

You can also sponsor me by getting a Digital Ocean VPS. With this referral link you'll get $100 credit for 60 days.

IPSec encrypts your IP packets to provide encryption and authentication, so no
one can decrypt or forge data between your clients and your server. L2TP
provides a tunnel to send data. It does not provide encryption and
authentication though, that is why we need to use it together with IPSec.

To work trough this tutorial you should have:

  * 1 Ubuntu 14.04 server with at least 1 public IP address and root access
  * 1 (or more) clients running an OS that support IPsec/L2tp vpns (Ubuntu, Mac OS, Windows, Android).
  * Ports 1701 TCP, 4500 UDP and 500 UDP opened in the firewall.

I do all the steps as the root user. You should do to, but only via * -i* or *
su -*. Do not allow root to login via SSH!

#### Install ppp openswan and xl2tpd

First we will install the required packages:

    apt-get install openswan xl2tpd ppp lsof

The openswan installation will ask some questions, this tutorial works with the
default answers (just enter through it).

#### Firewall and sysctl

We are going to set the firewall and make sure the kernel forwards IP packets:

Execute this command to enable the iptables firewall to allow vpn traffic:

    iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -j SNAT --to-source %SERVERIP% -o eth+

Replace %SERVERIP% with the external IP of your VPS. If your external interface
is not named ethX (`+` is a wildcard) then rename appropriately.

Execute the below commands to enable kernel IP packet forwarding and disable ICP

    echo "net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo "net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 0" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo "net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo "net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1" |  tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf

Set these settings for other network interfaces:

    for vpn in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*; do echo 0 > $vpn/accept_redirects; echo 0 > $vpn/send_redirects; done

Apply them:

    sysctl -p

##### Persistent settings via /etc/rc.local

To make sure this keeps working at boot you might want to add the following to

    for vpn in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*; do echo 0 > $vpn/accept_redirects; echo 0 > $vpn/send_redirects; done
    iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -j SNAT --to-source %SERVERIP% -o eth+

Add it before the `exit 0` line and replace %SERVERIP% with the external IP of
your VPS.

#### Configure Openswan (IPSEC)

Use your favorite editor to edit the following file:


Replace the contents with the following:

(Most lines have a comment below it explaining what it does.)

    version 2 # conforms to second version of ipsec.conf specification
    config setup
        #in what directory should things started by setup (notably the Pluto daemon) be allowed to dump core?
        #whether to accept/offer to support NAT (NAPT, also known as "IP Masqurade") workaround for IPsec
        #contains the networks that are allowed as subnet= for the remote client. In other words, the address ranges that may live behind a NAT router through which a client connects.
        #decide which protocol stack is going to be used.
        # Send a keep-alive packet every 60 seconds.
    conn L2TP-PSK-noNAT
        #shared secret. Use rsasig for certificates.
        #Disable pfs
        #the ipsec tunnel should be started and routes created when the ipsec daemon itself starts.
        #Only negotiate a conn. 3 times.
        # https://lists.openswan.org/pipermail/users/2014-April/022947.html
        # specifies the phase 1 encryption scheme, the hashing algorithm, and the diffie-hellman group. The modp1024 is for Diffie-Hellman 2. Why 'modp' instead of dh? DH2 is a 1028 bit encryption algorithm that modulo's a prime number, e.g. modp1028. See RFC 5114 for details or the wiki page on diffie hellmann, if interested.
        #because we use l2tp as tunnel protocol
        #fill in server IP above
        # Dead Peer Dectection (RFC 3706) keepalives delay
        #  length of time (in seconds) we will idle without hearing either an R_U_THERE poll from our peer, or an R_U_THERE_ACK reply.
        # When a DPD enabled peer is declared dead, what action should be taken. clear means the eroute and SA with both be cleared.

Replace %SERVERIP% with the external IP of your server. You can find it out by:

    curl http://ip.mtak.nl

**Do note that the config file has changed with this Ubuntu release. If you have
upgraded Ubuntu or followed an earlier tutorial, make sure you change the config
for ipsec.**

##### The shared secret

The shared secret is defined in the `/etc/ipsec.secrets` file. Make sure it is
long and random:

    %SERVERIP%  %any:   PSK "69EA16F2C529E74A7D1B0FE99E69F6BDCD3E44"

Yet again, replace %SERVERIP% with the IP of your server here. If you want to
generate a random key you can use the following openssl command:

    openssl rand -hex 30

Example output:


##### Verify IPSEC Settings

Now to make sure IPSEC works, execute the following command:

    ipsec verify

My output looks like this:

    Checking your system to see if IPsec got installed and started correctly:
    Version check and ipsec on-path                                 [OK]
    Linux Openswan U2.6.38/K3.13.0-24-generic (netkey)
    Checking for IPsec support in kernel                            [OK]
     SAref kernel support                                           [N/A]
     NETKEY:  Testing XFRM related proc values                      [OK]
    Checking that pluto is running                                  [OK]
     Pluto listening for IKE on udp 500                             [OK]
     Pluto listening for NAT-T on udp 4500                          [OK]
    Checking for 'ip' command                                       [OK]
    Checking /bin/sh is not /bin/dash                               [WARNING]
    Checking for 'iptables' command                                 [OK]
    Opportunistic Encryption Support                                [DISABLED]

The `/bin/sh` and `Opportunistic Encryption` warnings can be ignored. The first
one is a openswan bug and the second one causes xl2tpd to trip.

#### Configure xl2tpd

Use your favorite editor to edit the following file:


Replace the contents with the following:

    ipsec saref = yes
    saref refinfo = 30
    ;debug avp = yes
    ;debug network = yes
    ;debug state = yes
    ;debug tunnel = yes
    [lns default]
    ip range =
    local ip =
    refuse pap = yes
    require authentication = yes
    ;ppp debug = yes
    pppoptfile = /etc/ppp/options.xl2tpd
    length bit = yes

  * ip range = range of IPs to give to the connecting clients
  * local ip = IP of VPN server
  * refuse pap = refure pap authentication
  * ppp debug = yes when testing, no when in production

#### Local user (PAM / /etc/passwd) authentication

To use local user accounts via pam (or /etc/passwd), and thus not having plain
text user passwords in a text file you have to do a few extra steps.

In your `/etc/xl2tpd/xl2tpd.conf` add the following line:

    unix authentication = yes

and remove the following line:

    refuse pap = yes

In the file `/etc/ppp/options.xl2tpd` make sure you do not add the following
line (below it states to add it, but not if you want to use UNIX


Also in that file (`/etc/ppp/options.xl2tpd`) add the following extra line:


Change `/etc/pam.d/ppp` to this:

    auth    required        pam_nologin.so
    auth    required        pam_unix.so
    account required        pam_unix.so
    session required        pam_unix.so

(As in, remove existing lines and add these)

Add the following to `/etc/ppp/pap-secrets`:

    *       l2tpd           ""              *

(And, skip the `chap-secrets` file below (adding users).)

#### Configuring PPP

Use your favorite editor to edit the following file:


Replace the contents with the following:

    mtu 1200
    mru 1000
    name l2tpd
    lcp-echo-interval 30
    lcp-echo-failure 4

  * ms-dns = The dns to give to the client. I use googles public DNS.
  * proxyarp = Add an entry to this systems ARP [Address Resolution Protocol] table with the IP address of the peer and the Ethernet address of this system. This will have the effect of making the peer appear to other systems to be on the local ethernet.
  * name l2tpd = is used in the ppp authentication file.

#### Adding users

Every user should be defined in the `/etc/ppp/chap-secrets` file. Below is an
example file.

    # Secrets for authentication using CHAP
    # client       server  secret                  IP addresses
    alice          l2tpd   0F92E5FC2414101EA            *
    bob            l2tpd   DF98F09F74C06A2F             *

  * client = username for the user
  * server = the name we define in the ppp.options file for xl2tpd
  * secret = password for the user
  * IP Addresses = leave to * for any address or define addresses from were a user can login.

#### Testing it

To make sure everything has the newest config files restart openswan and xl2tpd:

    /etc/init.d/ipsec restart 
    /etc/init.d/xl2tpd restart

On the client connect to the server IP address (or add a DNS name) with a valid
user, password and the shared secret. Test if you have internet access and which
IP you have (via for example . If it is the VPN servers IP
then it works.

If you experience problems make sure to check the client log files and the
ubuntu `/var/log/syslog` and `/var/log/auth.log` files. If you google the error
messages you most of the time get a good answer.

   [1]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_on_a_Raspberry_Pi_with_Arch_Linux.html
   [2]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_vpn_with_CentOS_7.html
   [3]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_on_CentOS_-_Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux_or_Scientific_-_Linux_6.html
   [4]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_vpn_with_Ubuntu_16.04.html
   [5]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_vpn_with_Ubuntu_15.10.html
   [6]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_vpn_with_Ubuntu_15.04.html
   [7]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_14.04.html
   [8]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_13.10.html
   [9]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_13.04.html
   [10]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_12.10.html
   [11]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/IPSEC_L2TP_vpn_with_Ubuntu_12.04.html
   [12]: https://www.digitalocean.com/?refcode=7435ae6b8212


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