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Title       : 	Build a FreeBSD 10.3-release Openstack Image with bsd-cloudinit
Author      : 	Remy van Elst
Date        : 	27-04-2016
URL         : 	https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/FreeBSD_10.3-release_Openstack_Image.html
Format      : 	Markdown/HTML
We are going to prepare a FreeBSD image for Openstack deployment. We do this by
creating a FreeBSD 10.3-RELEASE instance, installing it and converting it using
[bsd-cloudinit][1]. We'll use the [CloudVPS][2] public Openstack cloud for this.
Create an account there and install the Openstack command line tools, like
`nova`, `cinder` and `glance`.
You can see all my [Openstack related articles here][3]. For example, how to use
[Duplicity to create Encrypted backups to the Openstack Swift Object Store][4]

I'm developing an open source monitoring app called Leaf Node Monitoring, for windows, linux & android. Go check it out!

Consider sponsoring me on Github. It means the world to me if you show your appreciation and you'll help pay the server costs.

You can also sponsor me by getting a Digital Ocean VPS. With this referral link you'll get $100 credit for 60 days.

This tutorial is available for:
  * [FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE.][6]
  * [FreeBSD 10.1-RELEASE.][7]
  * [FreeBSD 10.3-RELEASE.][8]
  * [FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE.][9]
### Command Line tools
Make sure you have the Openstack command line tools installed. Follow the
official openstack guide [here][10]. If you have `pip` installed you can use
that to install the tools:
    pip install python-novaclient
    pip install python-cinderclient
    pip install python-glanceclient
    pip install python-keystoneclient
    pip install python-neutronclient
    pip install python-swiftclient
Save yourself some time and create a file named `computerc` with the below
    export OS_AUTH_URL="https://identity.stack.cloudvps.com/v2.0"
    export OS_TENANT_NAME=""
    export OS_USERNAME=""
    export OS_PASSWORD=""
    export OS_TENANT_ID=""
When you are going to do stuff with the Openstack command line clients, load
this file:
    source computerc
That way, your authentication data are loaded and you don't have to give
parameters like `-os-username` and such.
### Openstack Overview
Openstack is a datacenter virtualization plaform consisting out of many
different tools and services. For this tutorial it is important to know the
following ones.
#### Compute (Nova)
This is the virtualization service. It works with a hypervisor to create and
manage virtual machines. You can create a VM based on a specific "Flavour",
which is just a definition of specs like disk, cpu and ram.
#### Block Storage (Cinder)
This is the service which makes block devices (volumes) available to services. A
flavour can not be changed, just resized. If you want extra storage you need to
create a volume, attach it to the VM and mount it there for use.
#### Images (Glance)
This is the service which holds all the images. Images can be used to boot a VM
from. Images can be prepared with tools like `cloud-init` to make them behave
better in a cloud environment, for example, setting an SSH key or password at
#### ISO Installation
Booting from an ISO with a disk attached is quite tricky in Openstack. This
FreeBSD tutorial can be used for any ISO which needs to be installed. The
process is as following:
  * Boot an instance from an ISO image with an extra volume attached.
  * Install the software on that volume.
  * Stop the install VM.
  * Start a new VM with the volume as root disk. (To test, prepare and configure the installation).
  * Stop and destory that VM.
  * Convert the volume to an image.
You then have an image with your own installation available to boot new vm's
Lets get started.
### Upload the ISO to glance
Start by uploading the FreeBSD 10.3-RELEASE ISO to Openstack using the Glance
    glance image-create --name "FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso" --disk-format iso --container-format bare --copy-from "http://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso"
If your Openstack provider does not support the `--copy-from` parameter you will
have to download the ISO yourself:
    wget http://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso
And upload it as an image. That can take a while:
    glance image-create --file Downloads/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso --name "FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso" --disk-format iso --container-format bare --progress
The result of the glance command should be something like below:
    | Property         | Value                                |
    | checksum         | None                                 |
    | container_format | bare                                 |
    | created_at       | 2014-11-16T10:18:39                  |
    | deleted          | False                                |
    | deleted_at       | None                                 |
    | disk_format      | iso                                  |
    | id               | 5b74bee7-c05e-4102-9dd2-349dec4adee2 |
    | is_public        | False                                |
    | min_disk         | 0                                    |
    | min_ram          | 0                                    |
    | name             | FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso  |
    | owner            | 0                                    |
    | protected        | False                                |
    | size             | 2585028608                           |
    | status           | queued                               |
    | updated_at       | 2014-11-16T10:18:39                  |
    | virtual_size     | None                                 |
Note down the ISO ID, in our case `5b74bee7-c05e-4102-9dd2-349dec4adee2`.
### Create the volume
Create the root volume for our FreeBSD preparation install:
    cinder create --display-name "FreeBSD-10.3-root" --availability-zone=NL1 16
This creates an 16 GB volume, on which we will install FreeBSD. The result of
the command is like below:
    |       Property      |                Value                 |
    |     attachments     |                  []                  |
    |  availability_zone  |                 NL1                  |
    |       bootable      |                false                 |
    |      created_at     |      2014-11-16T10:23:00.573804      |
    | display_description |                 None                 |
    |     display_name    |          FreeBSD-10.3-root           |
    |      encrypted      |                False                 |
    |          id         | f00fdea0-37ea-4a0e-9a1d-403d39ce8320 |
    |       metadata      |                  {}                  |
    |         size        |                  16                  |
    |     snapshot_id     |                 None                 |
    |     source_volid    |                 None                 |
    |        status       |               creating               |
    |     volume_type     |                 None                 |
Again, note down the ID, in our case `f00fdea0-37ea-4a0e-9a1d-403d39ce8320`.
### Boot a VM with an ISO and extra volume
Boot a new instance from the ISO, attaching the volume we just created as well:
    nova boot --image  --key-name  --poll --flavor "Standard 1" --availability-zone NL1 --nic net-id=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000 --block-device-mapping "vdb=:::0" "FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-install"
  * `--image` is the FreeBSD ISO image ID
  * `--flavor` is the Openstack VM Flavour, this can be different at another Openstack provider
  * `--availability-zone` is also Openstack provider specific. It is the datacenter/logic region where the VM starts. The volume needs to be in the same availability zone.
  * `--nic net-id` is the Openstack network. In this case it is the CloudVPS public network.
  * `--block-device-mapping` maps the volume we created as a second disk for the VM. The `:::0` makes sure it does not get deleted when the VM is terminated.
Your output will be like below:
    | Property                             | Value                                                                       |
    | OS-DCF:diskConfig                    | MANUAL                                                                      |
    | OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone          | NL1                                                                         |
    | OS-EXT-STS:power_state               | 0                                                                           |
    | OS-EXT-STS:task_state                | scheduling                                                                  |
    | OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                  | building                                                                    |
    | OS-SRV-USG:launched_at               | -                                                                           |
    | OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at             | -                                                                           |
    | accessIPv4                           |                                                                             |
    | accessIPv6                           |                                                                             |
    | adminPass                            |                                                                             |
    | config_drive                         |                                                                             |
    | created                              | 2014-11-16T10:28:12Z                                                        |
    | flavor                               | Standard 1 (111)                                                            |
    | hostId                               |                                                                             |
    | id                                   | dad95c7d-f921-4e89-8ea7-99e1654d65fe                                        |
    | image                                | FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso (5b74bee7-c05e-4102-9dd2-349dec4adee2)   |
    | key_name                             | -                                                                           |
    | metadata                             | {}                                                                          |
    | name                                 | FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-install                                                |
    | os-extended-volumes:volumes_attached | [{"id": "f00fdea0-37ea-4a0e-9a1d-403d39ce8320"}]                            |
    | progress                             | 0                                                                           |
    | security_groups                      | default                                                                     |
    | status                               | BUILD                                                                       |
    | tenant_id                            |                                                                             |
    | updated                              | 2014-11-16T10:28:12Z                                                        |
    | user_id                              |                                                                             |
Note down the ID like usual, in our case:
### Install FreeBSD 10.3
Do a standard install of FreeBSD 10. Use the Openstack console to do that.
These are my simple install settings:
  * default keymap
  * hostname: freebsd.public.cloudvps.com
  * Just lib32 and ports, no doc, games or src
  * Manual Partition Layout: 
    * vtbd0 GPT
    * vtbd0p1 64KB freebsd-boot
    * vtbd0p2 16GB freebsd-ufs mountpoint / (root)
    * The root partition must be the last partition on the drive so that it can expand at run time to the disk size that your instance type provides. Also note that bsd-cloudinit currently has a hard-coded bug/assumption that this is the second partition.
  * Root password P@ssw0rd
  * Network: 
    * adapter: vtnet0
    * ipv4: dhcp
    * ipv6: slaac
    * search: public.cloudvps.com
  * UTC: no, timezone 8 EUROPE 34 NETHERLANDS
  * Services at boot: 
    * sshd
    * ntpd
    * moused
    * dumpd
    * local_unbound
  * Extra users: no
  * Exit, open a shell.
### Stop the install VM
Shut the instance from FreeBSD using `shutdown -p now` and after that via nova:
    nova stop 
Detach the volume:
    nova volume-detach  
When the volume is detached you can delete the installation VM. We don't need it
    nova delete 
The volume will not be destroyed when the VM is deleted.
### Boot a new VM with the volume as root disk
Boot a new instance with the volume freebsd was installed on as the root disk:
    nova boot --block-device source=volume,id=,dest=volume,shutdown=preserve,bootindex=0 --poll --flavor "Standard 1" --availability-zone NL1 --nic net-id=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000 --key-name  FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-configure
Here we use `--block-device` to specify that the only disk attached to the
instance should be the volume `source=volume,id=`. This can also be
an image as source. The destination is also a volume, this can also be local.
If you have more block devices specified here you should make sure there is only
1 with the `bootindex 0`, that is the disk the VM will try to boot from.
### Prepare FreeBSD for Cloud Init
If you get a mountroot error from the bootloader, enter the following:
Change `/etc/fstab` after the fact, change `ada0` to `vtbd0` for VirtIO support.
Bootstrap the packaging system (`pkg`) so we can install some stuff required for
Enter y.
Install vim and py27-setuptools (for bsd-cloudinit):
    pkg install vim-lite py27-setuptools ca_root_nss
The ca _root_ nss is required by fetch to do certificate validation.
### Login Users
By default cloudinit will create a user named `freebsd` which has sudo
privileges without password. However, if you want to enable root login, so not
with a freebsd user, you need to add your SSH key, enable root login and add
some extra configuration later on for cloud-init.
If you want root login, add your SSH key:
    mkdir /root/.ssh
    chmod 700 /root/.ssh
    echo "ssh-rsa AAAA[...] user@example.com" > /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
    chmod 600 /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
Enable root login via ssh:
    vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    PermitRootLogin yes
### Expand root filesystem
Since [FreeBSD 10.2-RELEASE][11] there is an `rc` script which, when the file
`/firstboot` exists, expands the root filesystem to the full disk. While `bsd-
cloudinit` does this as well, if you don't need the whole `cloudinit` stack,
(when you use a static ssh key for example), you can `touch` that file to make
sure the disk is expanded at the first boot:
    touch /firstboot
### bsd-cloudinit install
Install python modules for bsd-cloudinit:
    easy_install eventlet
    easy_install iso8601
Add the following to `/boot/loader.conf` to make sure the console works:
This sets console output to go to the serial console, which is displayed by nova
consolelog, and the video console for sites with VNC or Spice configured.
Now do any other customizations you want to have in your image.
Do the bsd-cloudinit install:
    fetch https://raw.github.com/pellaeon/bsd-cloudinit-installer/master/installer.sh
    chmod +x installer.sh
The default username will be `freebsd`, bsd-cloudinit will create it if it does
not exists. The freebsd user will also be able to `sudo` without a password by
default, `bsd-cloudinit` will handle that by default.
Before you start the installer, make sure you do any other configuration you
want. After the installer has started and you reboot, cloudinit will prepare the
vm for use.
Start the installer:
Delete all history:
    set history = 0
    history -c
Zero out all the free space:
    dd if=/dev/zero of=/bla
    rm /bla
We do that so that the image compresses better later.
Turn the machine off:
    shutdown -p now
Terminate the machine, otherwise you cannot detach the volume (`ERROR: Can't
detach root device volume (HTTP 403)`):
    nova delete 
Convert the volume to an image:
    cinder upload-to-image  FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-CloudInit
This might take a while.
Set the min-disk and min-ram requirements, plus some more properties for the
    glance image-update --min-disk 8 --min-ram 1024 --property architecture=x86_64 --property image_supports_keypair=true --property image_supports_password=true --property supported=false 
If needed, make it public:
    glance --name "UNSUPPORTED: FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE" --is-public True 
That's it. You are done and have a good workable freebsd image.
Boot a new instance from your newly created image:
    nova boot --image  --flavor "Standard 4" --availability-zone NL1 --nic net-id=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000 --key-name  FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-cloudinit
When the instance has spawned you can login as the freebsd user,
### Compress the image
If your Openstack provider does not compress the images converted from volumes
you might need to do that yourself. You want to do that because storing 475 MB
costs you less qouta/money than 16 GB.
First, use glance to download the image:
    glance image-download --file bsd.raw 
Convert and compress the image to qcow2 with `qemu-img`:
    qemu-img convert -c -f raw -O qcow2 bsd.raw bsd.qcow2
You will get the best compression if you've zero'd out the image as listed
Upload this new smaller image to Openstack:
    glance image-create --name FreeBSD-10.3 --disk-format qcow2 --container-format bare --min-disk 16 --min-ram 1024  --property architecture=x86_64 --property image_supports_keypair=true --property image_supports_password=true --property supported=false --file ./bsd.qcow2 
In my case the converted volume was 16 GB and the compressed image was 475MB.
[If you like this article, consider sponsoring me by trying out a Digital Ocean
VPS. With this link you'll get a $5 VPS for 2 months free (as in, you get $10
credit). (referral link)][5]
   [1]: http://pellaeon.github.io/bsd-cloudinit/
   [2]: https://cloudvps.com
   [3]: https://raymii.org/s/tags/openstack.html
   [4]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/Encrypted_Duplicity_Backups_to_Openstack_Swift_Objectstore.html
   [5]: https://www.digitalocean.com/?refcode=7435ae6b8212
   [6]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/FreeBSD_10.0-release_Openstack_Image.html
   [7]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/FreeBSD_10.1-release_Openstack_Image.html
   [8]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/FreeBSD_10.3-release_Openstack_Image.html
   [9]: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/FreeBSD_11.0-release_Openstack_Image.html
   [10]: http://docs.openstack.org/user-guide/content/install_clients.html
   [11]: https://www.freebsd.org/releases/10.2R/relnotes.html#userland-rc
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