[CONTACT]

[ABOUT]

[POLICY]

This is a only version

Found at: raymii.org:70/Encrypted_Duplicity_Backups_to_Openstack_Swift_Objectstore.txt

This is a text-only version of the following page on https://raymii.org:
---
Title       : 	Encrypted Duplicity Backups to Openstack Swift Objectstore
Author      : 	Remy van Elst
Date        : 	19-05-2014
URL         : 	https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/Encrypted_Duplicity_Backups_to_Openstack_Swift_Objectstore.html
Format      : 	Markdown/HTML
---
![openStack Logo][1]
This is a guide on backing up your data to an Openstack Swift (Objectstore)
instance using Duplicity. It provides encrypted backups using gpg so that you
can safely use any public cloud storage to store them. This tutorial is for
Ubuntu and CentOS and includes initial setup plus a script to automate it all.

I'm developing an open source monitoring app called Leaf Node Monitoring, for windows, linux & android. Go check it out!

Consider sponsoring me on Github. It means the world to me if you show your appreciation and you'll help pay the server costs.

You can also sponsor me by getting a Digital Ocean VPS. With this referral link you'll get $100 credit for 60 days.

We will be using the Dutch provider [CloudVPS][3], which is not bound to the
Patriot Act, so your data is more safe than it is with a provider that is
vulnerable to the Patriot Act. Although your data is already encrypted with GPG,
you can never be to sure. [CloudVPS][3] provides 10GB free ObjectStore, if you
have VPS with them, the data is stored on at least 3 machines in 3 locations and
they have a boatload of certifications.
If you order a VPS or Objectstore at [CloudVPS][3], please mention my name or
this article. I'll get a little referal bonus, which will be used to keep this
awesome website running.
Openstack is one of those cloudy cloud projects. Warning, keep your buzzword
bingo cards ready for the [Wikipedia][4] definition:
    
    
    OpenStack is a free and open-source software cloud computing platform. It is primarily deployed as an infrastructure as a service (IaaS) solution. The technology consists of a series of interrelated projects that control pools of processing, storage, and networking resources throughout a data center, able to be managed or provisioned through a web-based dashboard, command-line tools, or a RESTful API. It is released under the terms of the Apache License.
    
Basically it is a very nice project which provides an easy and scalable way to:
  1. Virtualize (Compute / Nova) (KVM, VMWare, Xen)
  2. Provide scalable object access (Swift / Objectstore) (like s3)
  3. Manage it all using a nice dashboard (Horizon)
  4. Have a great API which lets people develop applications for it.
  5. Be open source. There is no vendor lock in, you can switch between any provider providing OpenStack.
My summary is, lets say, sparse. For the sake of this tutorial, we will be using
the Swift service (Object Store) to store backups we make with Duplicity.
Duplicity is another wonderfull open source project which lets you easily make
(encrypted) (remote) full or incremental backups. I've been using it for many
years now, it is awesome and very easy to manage.
As we all know, your data is not backed up until it is at least backed up in
three places:
  1. Locally (homeserver)
  2. Off site (the cloud)
  3. Offline (DVD / Tape in a box at your bank)
Why would we want to use the Openstack Swift service to send our backups to
instead of your own ssh server? Duplicity supports that as well, right?
To be honest, you can use both to your preference. Objectstore provides a nice
scalable way to acces data. Because it only needs to provide access to data, it
(can be)/(mostly is) faster than one VPS or off site Rasberry Pi. It (depending
on the provider) can also be stored on more than one place, without to much user
hassle.
An example can be a company providing managed services with their own (Openstack
based) "private cloud". They also provide backups, of course, and most of the
time they use Duplicity to make them. It is easier to scale up ObjectStore then
it is to scale up an SSH server. Both can be done of course, take a SAN or NFS
backend and it also scales.
Therefore, the choice is up to you. Both can complement each other, sometimes
one is better and sometimes the other. Speaking like a lawyer, it depends.
### CloudVPS
[CloudVPS][3] is the only Dutch company providing Openstack and Objectstore as
far as I know. It is not bound by the patriot act, because it has no American
locations and it has no American data centers. As far as I know, they only use
Dutch Data Centers.
[CloudVPS][3] has the following points listed on [their website][5]:
  * Durable: Your data is stored 3 times on 3 different machines in at least two different datacenters. This means you do not have to worry about data loss. You are getting the security of a datacenter redundant file cluster at a fraction of the cost.
  * Privacy concious: We are not subject to the Patriot Act like Amazon and others. This means our cloud storage can be used to store privacy sensitive data.
  * Certification: The [CloudVPS][3] Object Store is covered by our strict certification. This platform is covered by the ISO 27002, NEN 7510 and the CloudControls that we developed together with KPMG.
The latter can be very important for companies. I like the first and the second
most, because it takes away hassle for me to set up multiple backup locations.
If you order a VPS or Objectstore at [CloudVPS][3], please mention my name or
this article. I'll get a little referal bonus, which will be used to keep this
awesome website running.
**Note that this article is not sponsored nor endorsed by[CloudVPS][3], nor am I
speaking for or as [CloudVPS][3]. They just happen to be the best Dutch
Openstack provider.**
### Requirements
You will need the following for this tutorial:
  * Data to back up
  * [Duplicity][6]
  * Openstack Swift/Objectstore access
You will need Duplicity version v0.6.22 or higher. [v0.6.22][7] added support
for Openstack Swift as a backend.
This tutorial was written for and tested on Ubuntu 12.04, 14.04 and CentOS 6. It
also works on any other distro where the above requirements are met.
Note that there are more Openstack providers, for example [Rackspace][8]. Do
note, that they fall under the Patriot Act and thus the NSA probably can access
your data.
I will be using an example data set containing photo's in this tutorial. Since
the cost can sometimes be unclear with these Cloud providers, it is best to
start with a small data set.
### Install packages
We will be using pip to install the required python modules. We also install gpg
plus of course Duplicity itself. The following commands wil install them.
For debian/ubuntu:
    
    
    apt-get install python-pip gnupg2 duplicity
    
For CentOS:
    
    
    yum install python-pip gnupg2 duplicity
    
If the version of Duplicity in the repositories is to old, you can download
offcial RPM packages from the [Duplicity Website][9]. There is also an [official
PPA][10] for Ubuntu users. The duplicity versions in the Ubuntu 12.04 and CentOS
6 repositories are to old, so those OS versions require manual install.
Use `pip` to install the packages Duplicity uses for the Openstack
authentication (keystone) and the actual storage (swift):
    
    
    pip install python-swiftclient python-keystoneclient
    
### Generate Keys
Because we trust nobody except ourselves with our backups, we will be encrypting
the backups using GPG.
We will be creating two different keys, one for signing and one for encrypting.
First generate the encryption key:
    
    
    gpg --gen-key
    
Example output. I choose a 4096 RSA/RSA key whithout expiry date:
    
    
    gpg (GnuPG) 2.0.14; Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
    There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
    
    gpg: directory `/root/.gnupg' created
    gpg: new configuration file `/root/.gnupg/gpg.conf' created
    gpg: WARNING: options in `/root/.gnupg/gpg.conf' are not yet active during this run
    gpg: keyring `/root/.gnupg/secring.gpg' created
    gpg: keyring `/root/.gnupg/pubring.gpg' created
    Please select what kind of key you want:
       (1) RSA and RSA (default)
       (2) DSA and Elgamal
       (3) DSA (sign only)
       (4) RSA (sign only)
    Your selection? 1
    RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long.
    What keysize do you want? (2048) 4096
    Requested keysize is 4096 bits
    Please specify how long the key should be valid.
             0 = key does not expire
            = key expires in n days
          w = key expires in n weeks
          m = key expires in n months
          y = key expires in n years
    Key is valid for? (0) 0
    Key does not expire at all
    Is this correct? (y/N) y
    
    GnuPG needs to construct a user ID to identify your key.
    
    Real name: Objectstore Backup Encryption
    Email address: user@example.com
    Comment: 
    You selected this USER-ID:
        "Objectstore Backup Encryption "
    
    Change (N)ame, (C)omment, (E)mail or (O)kay/(Q)uit? O
    You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.
    
    can't connect to `/root/.gnupg/S.gpg-agent': No such file or directory
    gpg-agent[25464]: directory `/root/.gnupg/private-keys-v1.d' created
    
    We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform
    some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the
    disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number
    generator a better chance to gain enough entropy.
    gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
    gpg: key 672FBC9E marked as ultimately trusted
    public and secret key created and signed.
    
    gpg: checking the trustdb
    gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model
    gpg: depth: 0  valid:   1  signed:   0  trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u
    pub   4096R/672FBC9E 2014-05-19
          Key fingerprint = C3F3 8B08 7699 D9C9 9AE1  BFBF 1B01 60C5 672F BC9E
    uid                  Objectstore Backup Encryption 
    sub   4096R/7695ED36 2014-05-19
    
Remember your passphrase! Do the same thing again, now to create the Signing
key:
    
    
    gpg --gen-key
    
Again, I choose a non-expiring 4096 bits RSA/RSA key, with a different name:
    
    
    gpg (GnuPG) 2.0.14; Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
    There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
    
    Please select what kind of key you want:
       (1) RSA and RSA (default)
       (2) DSA and Elgamal
       (3) DSA (sign only)
       (4) RSA (sign only)
    Your selection? 1
    RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long.
    What keysize do you want? (2048) 4096
    Requested keysize is 4096 bits
    Please specify how long the key should be valid.
             0 = key does not expire
            = key expires in n days
          w = key expires in n weeks
          m = key expires in n months
          y = key expires in n years
    Key is valid for? (0) 0
    Key does not expire at all
    Is this correct? (y/N) y
    
    GnuPG needs to construct a user ID to identify your key.
    
    Real name: Objectstore Backup Signing
    Email address: user@example.com
    Comment: 
    You selected this USER-ID:
        "Objectstore Backup Signing "
    
    Change (N)ame, (C)omment, (E)mail or (O)kay/(Q)uit? O
    You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.
    
    can't connect to `/root/.gnupg/S.gpg-agent': No such file or directory
    We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform
    some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the
    disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number
    generator a better chance to gain enough entropy.
    gpg: key C65A7536 marked as ultimately trusted
    public and secret key created and signed.
    
    gpg: checking the trustdb
    gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model
    gpg: depth: 0  valid:   2  signed:   0  trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 2u
    pub   4096R/C65A7536 2014-05-19
          Key fingerprint = 1FC8 49E2 9A81 2B0E 1BAC  952A 1BCF 6F51 C65A 7536
    uid                  Objectstore Backup Signing 
    sub   4096R/B569F653 2014-05-19
    
We now have two keys, `B569F653` for backup signing, and `7695ED36` for backup
encryption. You can check it with the command `gpg --list-keys`:
    
    
    [root@vps2 ~]# gpg --list-keys
    /root/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
    ------------------------
    pub   4096R/672FBC9E 2014-05-19
    uid                  Objectstore Backup Encryption 
    sub   4096R/7695ED36 2014-05-19
    
    pub   4096R/C65A7536 2014-05-19
    uid                  Objectstore Backup Signing 
    sub   4096R/B569F653 2014-05-19
    
Make a backup of these keys! Store it on a safe place. The key (hopefully) has a
password, but still should be kept as secret as possible.
Use the `--export-secret-keys` option to backup both keys (as ascii, hence the
`-a`) to two files:
    
    
    [root@vps2 ~]# gpg --export-secret-keys -a B569F653 > signing.asc
    [root@vps2 ~]# gpg --export-secret-keys -a 7695ED36 > encryption.asc
    
If you ever need to import those, use the `gpg --import` command:
    
    
    root@vps5:~# gpg --import enc.asc 
    gpg: directory `/root/.gnupg' created
    gpg: new configuration file `/root/.gnupg/gpg.conf' created
    gpg: WARNING: options in `/root/.gnupg/gpg.conf' are not yet active during this run
    gpg: keyring `/root/.gnupg/secring.gpg' created
    gpg: keyring `/root/.gnupg/pubring.gpg' created
    gpg: key 672FBC9E: secret key imported
    gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
    gpg: key 672FBC9E: public key "Objectstore Backup Encryption " imported
    gpg: Total number processed: 1
    gpg:               imported: 1  (RSA: 1)
    gpg:       secret keys read: 1
    gpg:   secret keys imported: 1
    
The key setup part is now complete. Let's continue on to making the actual
backups.
### Duplicity
To use Duplicity with Swift we need to set 4 environment variables:
  * SWIFT_USERNAME: your username, in the form tenant:user
  * SWIFT_PASSWORD: your password
  * SWIFT_AUTHURL: URL to the Keystone service. For CloudVPS, it would be [https://identity.stack.cloudvps.com/v2.0/][11]
  * SWIFT_AUTHVERSION: for keystone authentication, set it to 2.
More information on CloudVPS Object Store can be found on their [quickstart][11]
page. Change this to fit your Cloud Providers settings.
You have to create a container/project at your Openstack Provider. I've created
a project named Duplicity, that is what will be used in this example.
Set the variables in your shell:
    
    
    export SWIFT_USERNAME="user@example.com"
    export SWIFT_PASSWORD="passw0rd"
    export SWIFT_AUTHURL="https://identity.stack.cloudvps.com/v2.0/"
    export SWIFT_AUTHVERSION="2"
    
Start a simple test. I have a folder with three photo's used as example.
    
    
    duplicity ~/test-backup swift://duplicity
    
The whole credentials part was a bit confusing to me. Why do I have a tenant,
project, bucket, user, password, url and what more? I got errors like
`Connection failed: ClientException No tenant specified` and `Connection failed:
ClientException Unauthorised. Check username, password and tenant name/id`.
The format of SWIFT_USERNAME should be "tenant:username". I did not know my
tenant name, so I used the [Openstack API][12] to find out. First get an Auth
Token, using cURL:
    
    
    curl -i 'https://identity.stack.cloudvps.com/v2.0/tokens' -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -H "Accept: application/json"  -d '{"auth": {"tenantName": "", "passwordCredentials": {"username": "user@example.com", "password": "passw0rd"}}}'
    
Response:
    
    
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Vary: X-Auth-Token
    Content-Type: application/json
    Content-Length: 543
    Connection: close
    
    {
        "access": {
            "token": {
                "issued_at": "2014-05-19T03:24:50.971373",
                "expires": "2014-05-20T03:24:50Z",
                "id": "8g2CeQ3kM0tkRAEiu6KmGaI6M8NLFDJ8WQ"
            },
            "serviceCatalog": [],
            "user": {
                "username": "user@example.com",
                "roles_links": [],
                "id": "J0XPUWipImRpkFXAVxJYELAXnXx26jPPj9w",
                "roles": [],
                "name": "user@example.com"
            },
            "metadata": {
                "is_admin": 0,
                "roles": []
            }
        }
    }
    
The token is the first `id`. In this case: `8g2CeQ3kM0tkRAEiu6KmGaI6M8NLFDJ8WQ`.
Use the token to get a list of tenants for that token:
    
    
    curl -i -X GET 'https://identity.stack.cloudvps.com/v2.0/tenants' -H "User-Agent: python-keystoneclient" -H "X-Auth-Token: 8g2CeQ3kM0tkRAEiu6KmGaI6M8NLFDJ8WQ"
    
Response:
    
    
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Vary: X-Auth-Token
    Content-Type: application/json
    Content-Length: 523
    Connection: close
    
    {
        "tenants_links": [],
        "tenants": [
            {
                "handle": "HANDLE",
                "description": "HANDLE Projectname",
                "enabled": true,
                "id": "zORIDFV4ybpbV9bRg1gwNi7NNnTiCw",
                "name": "HANDLE Projectname"
            },
            {
                "handle": "HANDLE",
                "description": "Main Customer Tenant",
                "enabled": true,
                "id": "vnsdmwzPSl8dHm2RQQe",
                "name": "HANDLE"
            }
        ]
    }
    
The part you want to have is the `"name": "HANDLE Projectname"` part. That is
your tenant.
In my case, the SWIFT_USERNAME should be:
    
    
    SWIFT_USERNAME="HANDLE Projectname:user@example.com"
    
If you are wondering why you don't specify an URL like so:
    
    
    duplicity ~/backup-test swift://https://zORIDFV4ybpbV9bRg1gwNi7NNnTiCw.objectstore.eu/duplicity
    
Well that is because Duplicity is smart enough to get that data from the API. If
you do try it, you will get an error like this:
    
    
    Connection failed: ClientException Container PUT failed: https://zORIDFV4ybpbV9bRg1gwNi7NNnTiCw.objectstore.eu/zORIDFV4ybpbV9bRg1gwNi7NNnTiCw.objectstore.eu/duplicity 404 Not Found  [first 60 chars of response] 
     
      404 Not Found
     
     
    
If the authentication details are correct, Duplicity should ask for the password
of your gpg keys and then do its magic:
    
    
    Local and Remote metadata are synchronized, no sync needed.
    Last full backup date: none
    GnuPG passphrase: 
    Retype passphrase to confirm: 
    No signatures found, switching to full backup.
    --------------[ Backup Statistics ]--------------
    StartTime 1400471008.22 (Mon May 19 05:43:28 2014)
    EndTime 1400471008.30 (Mon May 19 05:43:28 2014)
    ElapsedTime 0.08 (0.08 seconds)
    SourceFiles 10
    SourceFileSize 829395 (810 KB)
    NewFiles 10
    NewFileSize 829395 (810 KB)
    DeletedFiles 0
    ChangedFiles 0
    ChangedFileSize 0 (0 bytes)
    ChangedDeltaSize 0 (0 bytes)
    DeltaEntries 10
    RawDeltaSize 825299 (806 KB)
    TotalDestinationSizeChange 726604 (710 KB)
    Errors 0
    -------------------------------------------------
    
Now using `list-current-files` we can see what is in the backup:
    
    
    duplicity list-current-files swift://duplicity
    Local and Remote metadata are synchronized, no sync needed.
    Last full backup date: Mon May 19 05:43:17 2014
    Mon May 19 05:19:36 2014 .
    Mon May 19 05:19:36 2014 Metro-5110 Hdk-02.JPG
    Mon May 19 05:19:36 2014 Metro-5110 brand bij Rhoon 02-06-1993 om 17.00 uur.jpg
    Mon May 19 05:19:36 2014 Metro-5110-5124 brand bij Rho 2-06-1993.jpg
    
If we want to restore out backup, we can do it like this:
    
    
    mkdir /tmp/backup
    duplicity restore swift://duplicity /tmp/backup
    
Output:
    
    
    Local and Remote metadata are synchronized, no sync needed.
    Last full backup date: Mon May 19 05:43:17 2014
    GnuPG passphrase: 
    
And we check `/tmp/backup` to see it worked:
    
    
    $ ls /tmp/backup/
    total 820K
    drwxr-xr-x  2 remy remy  220 May 19 05:19 .
    drwxrwxrwt 20 root root  440 May 19 05:49 ..
    -rwxr-xr-x  1 remy remy  45K May 19 05:19 Metro-5110 Hdk-02.JPG
    -rwxr-xr-x  1 remy remy 215K May 19 05:19 Metro-5110 brand bij Rhoon 02-06-1993 om 17.00 uur.jpg
    -rwxr-xr-x  1 remy remy  92K May 19 05:19 Metro-5110-5124 brand bij Rho 2-06-1993.jpg
    
And you know what the cloud provider/a three letter american agency has? Just a
bunch of encrypted blobs:
![CloudVPS][13]
### Script
The below script automates the entire thing and lets you run a backup from a
cronjob. It requires that you put in your GPG passphrase to make unattended
backups possible, so make sure you keep the script just as safe as the keys
themselves.
The below script takes a full backup every 7 days, the rest is incremental.
Also, edit the variables to fit your needs.
    
    
    #!/bin/bash
    enc_key=7695ED36
    sign_key=B569F653
    src="/home/remy/backup-test"
    dest="swift://duplicity"
    
    # OpenStack
    export SWIFT_USERNAME="HANDLE Projectname:user@example.com"
    export SWIFT_PASSWORD="passw0rd"
    export SWIFT_AUTHURL="https://identity.stack.cloudvps.com/v2.0/"
    export SWIFT_AUTHVERSION="2"
    
    # GnuPG
    export PASSPHRASE="passw0rd"
    export SIGN_PASSPHRASE="passw0rd"
    
    
    
    duplicity --verbosity notice \
            --encrypt-key "$enc_key" \
            --sign-key "$sign_key" \
            --full-if-older-than 7D \
            --num-retries 3 \
            --asynchronous-upload \
            --volsize 10 \
             "${src}" "${dest}"
    
That's all for today. Have fun using Openstack for your backups!
   [1]: https://raymii.org/s/inc/img/openstack.jpg
   [2]: https://www.digitalocean.com/?refcode=7435ae6b8212
   [3]: http://www.cloudvps.com
   [4]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenStack
   [5]: http://www.cloudvps.com/openstack/object-store/
   [6]: http://duplicity.nongnu.org
   [7]: http://duplicity.nongnu.org/CHANGELOG
   [8]: http://www.rackspace.com/cloud/files/
   [9]: http://duplicity.nongnu.org/
   [10]: https://launchpad.net/%7Eduplicity-team/+archive/ppa
   [11]: http://www.cloudvps.com/community/knowledge-base/cloudvps-object-store-quickstart/
   [12]: http://docs.openstack.org/api/quick-start/content/
   [13]: https://raymii.org/s/inc/img/haha-nsa2.png
---
License:
All the text on this website is free as in freedom unless stated otherwise. 
This means you can use it in any way you want, you can copy it, change it 
the way you like and republish it, as long as you release the (modified) 
content under the same license to give others the same freedoms you've got 
and place my name and a link to this site with the article as source.
This site uses Google Analytics for statistics and Google Adwords for 
advertisements. You are tracked and Google knows everything about you. 
Use an adblocker like ublock-origin if you don't want it.
All the code on this website is licensed under the GNU GPL v3 license 
unless already licensed under a license which does not allows this form 
of licensing or if another license is stated on that page / in that software:
    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.
    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.
    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see .
Just to be clear, the information on this website is for meant for educational 
purposes and you use it at your own risk. I do not take responsibility if you 
screw something up. Use common sense, do not 'rm -rf /' as root for example. 
If you have any questions then do not hesitate to contact me.
See https://raymii.org/s/static/About.html for details.


AD: