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Found at: raymii.org:70/Build_a_35_dollar_Time_Capsule_-_Raspberry_Pi_Time_Machine.txt

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Title       : 	Build a $35 Time Capsule - Raspberry Pi Time Machine Backup Server
Author      : 	Remy van Elst
Date        : 	29-08-2014
URL         : 	https://raymii.org/s/articles/Build_a_35_dollar_Time_Capsule_-_Raspberry_Pi_Time_Machine.html
Format      : 	Markdown/HTML


This is a simple guide on building a $35 Time Capsule with a Raspberry Pi. A
Time Capsule is a network attached storage device from Apple for use with their
Time Machine. Time Machine gives users a very easy and userfriendly way to
automatically create and restore (encrypted) backups. A Time Capsule is
basically an expensive NAS that only talks the AFP/netatalk protocol. The 2 TB
version [costs $299 at this time][2], a [Raspberry Pi only $35][3].

I'm developing an open source monitoring app called Leaf Node Monitoring, for windows, linux & android. Go check it out!

Consider sponsoring me on Github. It means the world to me if you show your appreciation and you'll help pay the server costs.

You can also sponsor me by getting a Digital Ocean VPS. With this referral link you'll get $100 credit for 60 days.

You will need the following:

  * Raspberry Pi, Model B/B+
  * USB Hard Disk / Big USB Dick

The Raspberry Pi can run either Raspbian or Arch, this guide works on both. The
USB storage works best if it is externally powered.

I've tested with 2 different Raspberry Pi's, one model B+, raspbian, with a
128GB USB disk (from Sandisk) and on Raspberry Pi Model B with Arch and a 1 TB
USB hard drive. I've got some spare disk lying around, if you don't you should
buy one. The total cost might be higher than $35 if you need to buy storage or
want a nice case and other accessories.

### Preparing the disk

Make sure the Pi is installed with your OS of choice (Raspbian or Arch). Plug
the USB drive in. We will first format it to a big EXT4 partition.

Install `cfdisk` first, or just use parted/fdisk if you know the drill.


    apt-get install cfdisk


    pacman -Sy cfdisk

Issue the `dmesg` command and look at the last few lines. Remove the USB storage
and re-attach it. Execute the `dmesg` command again and look for lines like

    [ 7793.698383] usb 1-2.4: USB disconnect, device number 11
    [ 7798.233788] usb 1-2.4: new high-speed USB device number 12 using xhci_hcd
    [ 7798.326648] usb-storage 1-2.4:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
    [ 7799.331790] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk

Here you can see that `/dev/sdb` is our newly attached disk. Change it to your
setup. Be carefull with this, any typo's might erase all your OS data. Format it
with cfdisk:

    cfdisk /dev/sdb

Delete all partitions on there and create on big Linux (83) one. _Do note that
this will remove all data on the disk._

If you have a big disk (> 2 TB) you might need to create a GPT table on it. Use
`parted` for that:

    parted /dev/sdb
    mklabel gpt
    unit s
    mkpart primary 2048s 100%
    name 1 BFS

Now create an ext4 filesystem on it:

    mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1

Proceed to mounting the disk.

### Mounting the disk

We add the disk to `/etc/fstab` to make sure it will still be mounted after a
reboot. Otherwise you might end up with a full Pi and we don't want that.

Edit `/etc/fstab`:

    vim /etc/fstab

Add the following to it, change the disk device path if it is different:

    /dev/sdb1   /mnt/data  ext4    noexec,defaults  0   0

Create the actual mount folder:

    mkdir -p /mnt/data

Mount it, via fstab:

    mount -a

Now check the `df -h` command and see if it is actually mounted.

### Installing netatalk

`netatalk` is the program that talks the AFP protocol, which is wat Apple uses
for Time Machine. Install the daemon,

For Debian:

    apt-get install netatalk

For Arch

    pacman -Sy netatalk

Note that on Arch Linux Arm the AUR is included as a repo by default. If you run
it on regular arch you need to use `yaourt` to install netatalk or build
netatalk from the AUR yourself.

Make sure the service starts at boot:


    update-rc.d netatalk defaults


    systemctl enable netatalk

### Configuring Netatalk

Edit the file `/etc/afp.conf`:

vim /etc/afp.conf

Place the following contents. Edit the path's, user names and IP range:

     mimic model = TimeCapsule6,106
     log level = default:warn
     log file = /var/log/afpd.log
     hosts allow =
     basedir regex = /home
     path = /mnt/data/timecapsule/
     valid users = tmuser wife remy
     time machine = yes
    [Shared Media]
     path = /mnt/data/torrents/
     valid users = wife remy

Do not use a symlink as the source of this file. netatalk will not work

I also share a folder with my Transmission Torrents in there, that contains
about 400 GB of Linux iso's. The OS X machine is the only machine with a DVD
burner in the house, therefore I use that to burn them to disk.

The config file itself it pretty self explainatory.

Make sure the folders actually exist. Create them with:

    mkdir -p /mnt/data/{timecapsule,torrents}

Restart the `netatalk` service:


    service netatalk restart


    systemctl restart netatalk

On Arch you might need to configure the Avahi service, on Arch Linux Arm it is
enabled by default. This provides Bonjour capabilities.

You might need to create a user or set the correct permissions on the folder.
I'll add the user `wife` to the Pi, put her in the `users` group and give the
`users` group write permissions on the folders we share via AFP.

Add the user `wife`:

    useradd wife

Set the password for `wife`:

    passwd wife

Create the `users` group:

    groupadd users

Add the user to the `users` group:

    usermod -aG users wife

Set the correct permissions on the time machine folder:

    chown remy:users /mnt/data/timecapsule 
    chmod 775 /mnt/data/timecapsule

That's it. You can now configure Time Machine on OS X. Search for the folder, it
should pop up:


Enjoy your $ 35 Time Capsule. Consider making a donation with (a part of) the
money you saved. Or if you like this article and want to support me AND get $10
Digital Ocean credit (2 months free), use this link to order:

   [1]: https://raymii.org/s/inc/img/timemachine1.png
   [2]: http://store.apple.com/us/product/ME177/airport-time-capsule-2tb
   [3]: http://www.raspberrypi.org/buy/
   [4]: https://www.digitalocean.com/?refcode=7435ae6b8212
   [5]: https://raymii.org/s/inc/img/timemachine2.png


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