Zimbabwe Introduction Zimbabwe offici

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=                              Zimbabwe                              =

Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked
country in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers,
bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west,
Zambia to the north, and Mozambique to the east. The capital and
largest city is Harare, and the second largest is Bulawayo. A country
of roughly 15 million people, Zimbabwe's largest and dominant ethnic
the Northern Ndebele and other smaller minorities. Zimbabwe has 16
official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most common.
Beginning in the 9th century, during its late Iron Age, the Bantu
Great Zimbabwe; the city-state became one of the major African trade
centres by the 11th century, controlling the gold, ivory and copper
trades with the Swahili coast, which were connected to Arab and Indian
From there, the Kingdom of Zimbabwe was established, followed by the
Rozvi and Mutapa empires.

The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes demarcated the
Rhodesia region in 1890 when they conquered Mashonaland and later in
as the First Matabele War. Company rule ended in 1923 with the
establishment of Southern Rhodesia as a self-governing British colony.
ndependence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation
and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this
culminated in a peace agreement that established universal
enfranchisement and 'de jure' sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980.
Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was
under Robert Mugabe and from which it withdrew in December 2003.

Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF
n 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security
apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread
currencies other than the Zimbabwean dollar was permitted, although
year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly
country's national army in a coup d'état, and Mugabe resigned six days
later. Emmerson Mnangagwa has since served as Zimbabwe's president.

Zimbabwe is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African
Development Community, the African Union, and the Common Market for
Eastern and Southern Africa.

The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, a
medieval city (Masvingo) in the country's south-east whose remains are
now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the
'dzimba-dza-mabwe', translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as
"houses of stones" ('dzimba' = plural of 'imba', "house"; 'mabwe' =
around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day Masvingo province.
Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a
contracted form of 'dzimba-hwe', which means "venerated houses" in the
Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs' houses or

Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia (1898), Rhodesia
(1965), and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979). The first recorded use of
"Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a
coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe
National Party became the first to officially use the name in 1961.
The term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the
late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as
nappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations.

According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to
choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as
"Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe",
Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to
the south of Bulawayo.

term of the black nationalist movement. In a 2001 interview, black
nationalist Eddison Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name
black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the
Second 'Chimurenga' campaigns against the Rhodesian government during
the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964-1979. Major factions in this camp
ncluded the Zimbabwe African National Union (led by Robert Mugabe
from 1975), and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (led by Joshua
Nkomo from its founding in the early 1960s).

Like those of many African countries that gained independence during
the Cold War, 'Zimbabwe' is an ethnically neutral name. It is
and dominated by them in various, can be described as a nation state.
The constitution acknowledges 16 languages, but only embraces two of
them nationally, Shona and English. Shona is taught widely in schools,
unlike Ndebele. Zimbabwe has additionally never had a non-Shona head
of state.

 Pre-colonial era 
Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe
to at least 500,000 years ago. Zimbabwe's earliest known inhabitants
arrowheads and cave paintings. Approximately 2,000 years ago, the
first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion.

Societies speaking proto-Shona languages first emerged in the middle
Limpopo River valley in the 9th century before moving on to the
Zimbabwean highlands. The Zimbabwean plateau became the centre of
early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian
Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th
century. This was the precursor to the Shona civilisations that
The main archaeological site used a unique dry stone architecture. The
Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of trading states
explorers arrived from Portugal. These states traded gold, ivory, and
copper for cloth and glass.

By 1220, the Kingdom of Zimbabwe eclipsed Mapungubwe. This Shona state
further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture,
Great Zimbabwe. From  1450 to 1760, the Kingdom of Mutapa ruled much
of the area of present-day Zimbabwe, plus parts of central Mozambique.
'Mwene Mutapa' or 'Monomotapa' as well as "Munhumutapa", and was
The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series
of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th

As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior a
new Shona state emerged, known as the Rozwi Empire. Relying on
centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi
(meaning "destroyers") expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean
Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled against King Shaka
and established his own clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their
their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the
Mfecane. When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal in 1836, they
Barolong warriors and Griqua commandos. By 1838 the Ndebele had
conquered the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states,
and reduced them to vassaldom.

After losing their remaining South African lands in 1840, Mzilikazi
and his tribe permanently settled in the southwest of present-day
Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabeleland, establishing Bulawayo
as their capital. Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military

 Colonial era and Rhodesia (1888–1964) 
South Africa Company (chartered in 1889). In 1888, Rhodes obtained a
concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele

He presented this concession to persuade the government of the United
Kingdom to grant a royal charter to the company over Matabeleland, and
ts subject states such as Mashonaland as well. Rhodes used this
Europeans protected by well-armed British South Africa Police (BSAP)
through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort
Salisbury (present-day Harare), and thereby establish company rule
over the area. In 1893 and 1894, with the help of their new Maxim
War. Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar
concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake
Tanganyika, then known as "Zambesia". In accordance with the terms of
aforementioned concessions and treaties, mass settlement was
encouraged, with the British maintaining control over labour as well
as over precious metals and other mineral resources.

for the region south of the Zambezi, which later adopted the name
"Zimbabwe". The region to the north, administered separately, was
later termed Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia). Shortly after the
Second Matabele War of 1896-1897 lasted in Matabeleland until 1896,
Burnham. Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts (known as
'Chimurenga') against company rule during 1896 and 1897. Following
these failed insurrections, the Rhodes administration subdued the
Ndebele and Shona groups and organised the land with a
ndigenous peoples.

The United Kingdom annexed Southern Rhodesia on 12 September 1923.
Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution
for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force. Under the new
constitution, Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British
colony, subsequent to a 1922 referendum. Rhodesians of all races
the early-20th century. Proportional to the white population, Southern
Rhodesia contributed more 'per capita' to both the First and Second
World Wars than any other part of the empire, including Britain.

The 1930 Land Apportionment Act restricted black land ownership to
certain segments of the country, setting aside large areas solely for
the purchase of the white minority. This act, which led to rapidly
land reform. In 1953, in the face of African opposition, Britain
consolidated the two Rhodesias with Nyasaland (Malawi) in the
ll-fated Central African Federation, which Southern Rhodesia
essentially dominated. Growing African nationalism and general
union in 1963, forming three separate divisions. While multiracial
Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority

Following Zambian independence (effective from October 1964), Ian
Smith's Rhodesian Front government in Salisbury dropped the
ts name to 'Zambia', having the word 'Southern' before the name
'Rhodesia' became unnecessary and the country simply became known as
'Rhodesia' afterwards). Intent on effectively repudiating the recently
adopted British policy of "no independence before majority rule",
Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the
United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. This marked the first such course
taken by a rebel British colony since the American declaration of

 Declaration of independence and civil war (1965–1980) 
The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of
Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with Smith's administration in
the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state. These

A civil war ensued when Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union
(ZAPU) and Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU),
nations, initiated guerrilla operations against Rhodesia's
Union, the Warsaw Pact and associated nations such as Cuba, and
adopted a Marxist-Leninist ideology; ZANU meanwhile aligned itself
Smith declared Rhodesia a republic in 1970, following the results of a
nternationally. Meanwhile, Rhodesia's internal conflict intensified,
eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the militant

by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, who offered to leave the white population
comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial
n April 1979, concluding with the United African National Council
(UANC) carrying a majority of parliamentary seats. On 1 June 1979,
Muzorewa, the UANC head, became prime minister and the country's name
of the Rhodesian Security Forces, civil service, judiciary, and a
third of parliament seats to whites. On 12 June, the United States
Senate voted to lift economic pressure on the former Rhodesia.

Following the fifth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, held in
Lusaka, Zambia, from 1 to 7 August in 1979, the British government
nvited Muzorewa, Mugabe, and Nkomo to participate in a constitutional
conference at Lancaster House. The purpose of the conference was to
constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British
authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence.
With Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth
Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were
mounted from 10 September to 15 December in 1979, producing a total of
nterest represented reached the Lancaster House Agreement,
effectively ending the guerrilla war.

On 11 December 1979, the Rhodesian House of Assembly voted 90 to nil
to revert to British colonial status (the 'aye' votes included Ian
Smith). The bill then passed the senate and was assented to by the
as the Colony of Southern Rhodesia, although on 13 December Soames
Rhodesia would continue to be used. Britain lifted sanctions on 12
December and the United Nations on 16 December.

During the elections of February 1980, Mugabe and the ZANU party
Britain, formally granted independence to the new nation of Zimbabwe
at a ceremony in Harare in April 1980.

 Independence era (1980–present) 
Zimbabwe's first president after its independence was Canaan Banana in
Africa" but added: "Don't tarnish it!".

Opposition to what was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately
erupted around Matabeleland. The Matabele unrest led to what has
become known as 'Gukurahundi' (Shona: 'the early rain which washes
away the chaff before the spring rains'). The Fifth Brigade, a North
Korean-trained elite unit that reported directly to Mugabe, entered
Matabeleland and massacred thousands of civilians accused of
five-year 'Gukurahundi' campaign ranged from 3,750 to 80,000.
Thousands of others were tortured in military internment camps. The
campaign officially ended in 1987 after Nkomo and Mugabe reached a
unity agreement that merged their respective parties, creating the
Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF). Elections
n March 1990 resulted in another victory for Mugabe and the ZANU-PF

During the 1990s, students, trade unionists, and other workers often
ZANU-PF party policies. In 1996, civil servants, nurses, and junior
affecting most of southern Africa.

Land redistribution re-emerged as the main issue for the ZANU-PF
"willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the 1980s,
the minority white Zimbabwean population of around 0.6% continued to

black population. Confiscations of white farmland, continuous
to a sharp decline in agricultural exports, which were traditionally
the country's leading export-producing sector. Some 58,000 independent
black farmers have since experienced limited success in reviving the

beset by a wide range of international sanctions. In 2002, the nation
farm seizures and blatant election tampering. The following year,
Zimbabwean officials voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth
membership.  In 2001, the United States enacted the Zimbabwe Democracy
and Economic Recovery Act (ZDERA).  It came into effect in 2002 and
froze credit to the Zimbabwean government. The bill was sponsored by
Bill Frist and co-sponsored by U.S. senators Hillary Clinton, Joe
Biden, Russ Feingold, and Jesse Helms. Through ZDERA Section 4C
("Multilateral Financing Restriction"), the Secretary of the Treasury
s ordered to direct U.S. Directors at the International Financial
extension by the respective institution of any loan, credit, or
United States or any international financial institution."

By 2003, the country's economy had collapsed. It is estimated that up
to a quarter of Zimbabwe's 11 million people had fled the country.
Three-quarters of the remaining Zimbabweans were living on less than
one U.S. dollar a day.

Following elections in 2005, the government initiated "Operation
Murambatsvina", an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums
emerging in towns and cities, leaving a substantial section of urban
as an attempt to provide decent housing to the population, although
according to critics such as Amnesty International, authorities have
yet to properly substantiate their claims.

On 29 March 2008, Zimbabwe held a presidential election along with a
two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the Movement
for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai (MDC-T) had achieved a majority of
one seat in the lower house of parliament.

On 10 July 2008, Russia and China vetoed UN sanctions on Zimbabwe
opposed it, including Vietnam, South Africa and Libya, which argued
that Zimbabwe was not a 'threat to international peace and security.'

areas of living standards, public health (with a major cholera
outbreak in December) and various basic affairs. During this period,
NGOs took over from government as a primary provider of food during
this period of food insecurity in Zimbabwe.

Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the
office of prime minister. Due to ministerial differences between their
until 13 February 2009. By December 2010, Mugabe was threatening to
completely expropriate remaining privately owned companies in Zimbabwe
unless "western sanctions" were lifted.

A 2011 survey by Freedom House suggested that living conditions had
mproved since the power-sharing agreement. The United Nations Office
for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs stated in its 2012-2013
Zimbabwe since 2009, but conditions remain precarious for many

On 17 January 2013, Vice-president John Nkomo died of cancer at St
Anne's Hospital, Harare, at the age of 78. A new constitution approved
n the Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013 curtails

Mugabe was re-elected president in the July 2013 Zimbabwean general
election which 'The Economist' described as "rigged" and the 'Daily
Telegraph' as "stolen". The Movement for Democratic Change alleged
massive fraud and tried to seek relief through the courts. In a
n fact won the contentious 2008 polls by an astounding 73%. After
Economist', embarked on "misrule and dazzling corruption". A 2017
that due to the deterioration of government and the economy "the
ts own institutions" with widespread and informal police roadblocks
to issue fines to travellers being one manifestation of this.

On 22 October 2015, president Robert Mugabe was awarded the Confucius
commitment to the nation's political and economic order.

collapse in the country, and the finance minister admitted "Right now

of Vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa, placing Mugabe under house
arrest. The army denied that their actions constituted a coup.  On 19
November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and
appointed former Vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21
November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment
Zimbabwe Mugabe should be succeeded by Vice-president Phelekezela
Mphoko, a supporter of Grace Mugabe, ZANU-PF chief whip
[https://www.pindula.co.zw/Lovemore_Matuke Lovemore Matuke] stated to
the Reuters news agency that Mnangagwa would be appointed as

On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, which were won by
the ZANU-PF party led by Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa who was leading the
main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results
claiming voter fraud,  and subsequently filed a petition to the
Constitution Court of Zimbabwe. The court confirmed Mnangagwa's
victory, making him the newly elected president after Mugabe.

the Mugabe era using various statistics, said that at the time of
ndependence in 1980, the country was growing economically at about
five per cent a year, and had done so for quite a long time. If this
at about 3.5 per cent per annum, doubling every 21 years. Had this
believed to be partly caused by death from starvation and disease, and
exceed 200,000 since 1980. The Mugabe government has directly or
ndirectly caused the deaths of at least three million Zimbabweans in
are facing starvation because of the recent droughts the country is

to rejoin the Commonwealth, which is as of 2023 conducting a
fact-finding mission prior to asking the Secretary-General to issue a

On 6 September 2019, former president Robert Mugabe died in Singapore,
aged 95.

Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in southern Africa, lying between
latitudes 15° and 23°S, and longitudes 25° and 34°E. It is bordered by
South Africa to the south, Botswana to the west and southwest, Zambia
to the northwest, and Mozambique to the east and northeast. Its
northwest corner is roughly 150 meters from Namibia, nearly forming a
four-nation quadripoint. Most of the country is elevated, consisting
of a central plateau (high veld) stretching from the southwest
northwards with altitudes between 1,000 and 1,600 m. The country's
extreme east is mountainous, this area being known as the Eastern
Highlands, with Mount Nyangani as the highest point at 2,592 m.

The highlands are known for their natural environment, with tourist
Chirinda Forest at Mount Selinda. About 20% of the country consists of
low-lying areas, (the low veld) under 900m. Victoria Falls, one of the
country's extreme northwest and is part of the Zambezi river.

Over geological time Zimbabwe has experienced two major post-Gondwana
erosion cycles (known as African and post-African), and a very

Zimbabwe has a subtropical climate with many local variations. The
the central plateau receive frost in winter. The Zambezi valley is
known for its extreme heat, and the Eastern Highlands usually
experience cool temperatures and the highest rainfall in the country.
The country's rainy season generally runs from late October to March,
and the hot climate is moderated by increasing altitude. Zimbabwe is
faced with recurring droughts. In 2019, at least 55 elephants died
because of drought. Severe storms are rare.

Zimbabwe contains seven terrestrial ecoregions: Kalahari
acacia-baikiaea woodlands, Southern Africa bushveld, Southern miombo
forest-grassland mosaic in the Eastern Highlands.

The country is mostly savanna, although the moist and mountainous
Eastern Highlands support areas of tropical evergreen and hardwood
forests. Trees found in the Eastern Highlands include teak, mahogany,
enormous specimens of strangler fig, forest Newtonia, big leaf, white

and baobabs abound. Much of the country is covered by miombo woodland,
flowers and shrubs are hibiscus, flame lily, snake lily, spider lily,
leonotis, cassia, tree wisteria and dombeya. There are around 350

 Environmental issues 
Large parts of Zimbabwe were once covered by forests with abundant
led to erosion which diminishes the amount of fertile soil. Local
farmers have been criticised by environmentalists for burning off
vegetation to heat their tobacco barns. The country had a 2019 Forest
Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.31/10, ranking it 81st

Zimbabwe is a republic with a presidential system of government. The
constitution after a referendum in 2013. Under the constitutional
changes in 2005, an upper chamber, the Senate, was reinstated. The
House of Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament. In 1987 Mugabe
the 1990 election the second-placed party, Edgar Tekere's Zimbabwe
Unity Movement (ZUM), obtained 20% of the vote.

During the 1995 parliamentary elections most opposition parties,
ncluding the ZUM, boycotted the voting, resulting in a near sweep by
the ruling party. When the opposition returned to the polls in 2000,
they won 57 seats, only five fewer than ZANU-PF. Presidential
elections were again held in 2002 amid allegations of vote-rigging,
ntimidation and fraud. The 2005 Zimbabwe parliamentary elections were
and intimidation were made by the Movement for Democratic Change party
and Jonathan Moyo, calling for investigations into 32 of the 120
constituencies. Moyo participated in the elections despite the
allegations and won a seat as an independent member of Parliament.

between Mugabe and Tsvangirai. The MDC-T challenged these results,
claiming widespread election fraud by the Mugabe government. The
continuing unfairness of the process and refusing to participate in a
"violent, illegitimate sham of an election process", Tsvangirai pulled
out of the presidential run-off, the election commission held the
of parliament and individuals who were disillusioned by their
manifesto. On 28 April 2008, Tsvangirai and Mutambara announced at a
co-operating, enabling the MDC to have a clear parliamentary majority.
Tsvangirai said that Mugabe could not remain president without a

leaders of South Africa and Mozambique, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a
Donor nations adopted a 'wait-and-see' attitude, wanting to see real
change being brought about by this merger before committing themselves
to funding rebuilding efforts, which are estimated to take at least
five years. On 11 February 2009 Tsvangirai was sworn in as prime
minister by Mugabe.

money was spent, except that it was not for the intended purpose, and
the government has failed to honour requests to return the money.

country's constitutional referendum and elections.

The status of Zimbabwe politics has been thrown into question by a
coup taking place in November 2017, ending Mugabe's 30 year
following this coup and was officially elected with 50.8% of the vote
n the 2018 Zimbabwean general election, avoiding a run-off and making

The government has received negative comments among its citizen for
always shutting down the internet in the past amid protests such as
the one planned on the 31st of July. 2020.

 Armed forces 
The Zimbabwe Defence Forces were set up by unifying three
nsurrectionist forces - the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army
(ZANLA), the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), and the
Rhodesian Security Forces (RSF) - after the Second Chimurenga and
Zimbabwean independence in 1980. The integration period saw the
formation of the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) and Air Force of
Zimbabwe (AFZ) as separate entities under the command of General
Solomon Mujuru and Air Marshal Norman Walsh, who retired in 1982 and
Air Chief Marshal Josiah Tungamirai in 1985. In 2003, General
Constantine Chiwenga, was promoted and appointed Commander of the
Zimbabwe Defence Forces. Lieutenant General P. V. Sibanda replaced him
as Commander of the Army.

The ZNA has an active duty strength of 30,000. The Air Force has about
Defence Forces and numbers 25,000.

Following majority rule in early 1980, British Army trainers oversaw
the integration of guerrilla fighters into a battalion structure
overlaid on the existing Rhodesian armed forces. For the first year, a
battalion commander. If he or she was from ZANLA, then his or her
versa. This ensured a balance between the two movements in the command

The ZNA was originally formed into four brigades, composed of a total
of 28 battalions. The brigade support units were composed almost
entirely of specialists of the former Rhodesian Army, while
unintegrated battalions of the Rhodesian African Rifles were assigned
to the 1st, 3rd and 4th Brigades. The Fifth Brigade was formed in 1981
and disbanded in 1988 after the demonstration of mass brutality and
murder during the brigade's occupation of Matabeleland in what became
known as 'Gukurahundi'. The brigade had been re-formed by 2006, with
ts commander, Brigadier General John Mupande praising its "rich

 Human rights 
There are widespread reports of systematic and escalating violations
of human rights in Zimbabwe under the Mugabe administration and the
as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch the government of
Zimbabwe violates the rights to shelter, food, freedom of movement and
Gregory Stanton, president of the International Association of
Genocide Scholars, stated there was "clear evidence that Mugabe
trial in front of the International Criminal Court."

Male homosexuality is illegal in Zimbabwe. Since 1995, the government
viewed homosexuality as an "un-African" and immoral culture brought by
European colonists and practised by only "a few whites" in his

Opposition gatherings are frequently the subject of reprisals by the
been strongly condemned by the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, the
European Union, and the United States. There are also concerns over
Fox Southwest media rights and access. The Zimbabwean government is
accused of suppressing freedom of the press and freedom of speech. It
Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation, as a propaganda tool. Newspapers
critical of the government, such as the 'Daily News', closed after
bombs exploded at their offices and the government refused to renew
their licence. BBC News, Sky News, and CNN were banned from filming or
CNN were lifted. Sky News continues to report on happenings within
Zimbabwe from neighbouring countries like South Africa.

On 24 July 2020, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Human Rights (OHCHR) expressed concerns over allegations
crisis as a pretext to suppress freedom of expression and peaceful
assembly on the streets. OHCHR spokesperson Liz Throssell stated that
authorities in Zimbabwe used force to disperse and arrest nurses and

On 5 August 2020, the #ZimbabweanLivesMatter campaign on Twitter drew
attention of international celebrities and politicians towards human
Mnangagwa's government. The campaign was in response to arrests,
abductions and torture of political activists and the incarceration of

 Administrative divisions 
Zimbabwe has a centralised government and is divided into eight
administration is usually carried out.

Bulawayo 	 Bulawayo
Harare 	 Harare
Manicaland 	 Mutare
Mashonaland Central 	 Bindura
Mashonaland East 	 Marondera
Mashonaland West 	 Chinhoyi
Masvingo 	 Masvingo city
Matabeleland North 	 Lupane District
Matabeleland South 	 Gwanda
Midlands 	 Gweru

The names of most of the provinces were generated from the Mashonaland
and Matabeleland divide at the time of colonisation: Mashonaland was
the territory occupied first by the British South Africa Company
First Matabele War. This corresponds roughly to the precolonial
territory of the Shona people and the Matabele people, although there
are significant ethnic minorities in most provinces. Each province is
by the Public Service Commission. Other government functions at

The provinces are subdivided into 59 districts and 1,200 wards
(sometimes referred to as municipalities). Each district is headed by
a district administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission.
There is also a Rural District Council, which appoints a chief
executive officer. The Rural District Council is composed of elected
of the chiefs (traditional leaders appointed under customary law) in
the district. Other government functions at district level are carried
out by district offices of national government departments.

At the ward level there is a Ward Development Committee, comprising
the elected ward councillor, the kraalheads (traditional leaders
Committees. Wards are subdivided into villages, each of which has an
elected Village Development Committee and a headman (traditional
leader subordinate to the kraalhead).

Since the early 2000s, Zimbabwe has been under sanctions imposed by
the United States and the European Union that have shaped Zimbabwe's
nations. In 2002, Zimbabwe held general elections and ahead of that
election the EU sent observers, but the election observer team was
forced to leave the country. In February 2002 the EU placed targeted
or restrictive measures on Zimbabwe. At least 20 government officials
the elections there was $128 million that was budgeted for the
Zimbabwean government from 2002 to 2007, this was cancelled.
Nevertheless, the EU only stopped funding the government directly but
t continued sending money only through aid agencies and NGOs.

After some years the EU and Zimbabwe resolved some of their disputes
and a lot of the EU sanctions were removed. Only Mugabe and his wife
However, the EU still did not give Zimbabwe money. So, the government
channels money through NGOs as it was seen in the 4 March 2019 - 21
March 2019 Cyclone Idai.

The United States also imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe. There are two
types of U.S. sanctions on Zimbabwe. The first one is Zimbabwe
Democracy and Economic Recovery Act (ZIDERA) and the second one is the
Targeted Sanctions Program. ZIDERA made several demands, the first one
ts interference in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, third
Zimbabwe must stop the expropriation of white farms. If none of these
lending money to Zimbabwe. A new ZIDERA came into effect in 2018 with
the motto that, Restore Democracy or there won't be any friendship,
there must be free elections, free media and human rights, Zimbabwe
must enforce the ruling of the SADC Tribunal. The Targeted Sanctions
on Zimbabwe have been in place for more than two decades. In March

Historical GDP per capita development in southern African countries,
Since January 2002, the government has had its lines of credit at
nternational financial institutions frozen, through U.S. legislation
called the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001
(ZDERA). Section 4C instructs the secretary of the treasury to direct
nternational financial institutions to veto the extension of loans
and credit to the Zimbabwean government. According to the United
States, these sanctions target only seven specific businesses owned or
controlled by government officials and not ordinary citizens.

Zimbabwe maintained positive economic growth throughout the 1980s (5%
GDP growth per year) and 1990s (4.3% GDP growth per year). The economy
the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of
ever economic growth with an annual GDP decrease of 6.1%. The downward
corruption by the government and the eviction of more than 4,000 white
farmers in the controversial land confiscations of 2000. The
Zimbabwean government and its supporters attest that it was Western

By 2005, the purchasing power of the average Zimbabwean had dropped to
the same levels in real terms as 1953. In 2005, the government, led by
central bank governor Gideon Gono, started making overtures that white
farmers could come back. There were 400 to 500 still left in the
country, but much of the land that had been confiscated was no longer
farms owned by white farmers. The farms that left were either too
the regime. In January 2007, the government issued long-term leases to
continued to demand that all remaining white farmers, who were given
eviction notices earlier, vacate the land or risk being arrested.
Mugabe pointed to foreign governments and alleged "sabotage" as the
cause of the fall of the Zimbabwean economy, as well as the country's

Statistical Office. This represented a state of hyperinflation, and
the central bank introduced a new 100 trillion dollar note. In January
Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that Zimbabweans would be
alongside the Zimbabwean dollar. In an effort to combat inflation and
foster economic growth, the Zimbabwean dollar was suspended
ndefinitely in April 2009. In 2016, Zimbabwe allowed trade in the
United States dollar and various other currencies such as the rand
(South Africa), the pula (Botswana), the euro, and the pound sterling
(UK). In February 2019, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Governor John
Mangudya introduced a new local currency, the Real Time Gross
Settlement dollar, in a move to address some of the Zimbabwean
economic and financial challenges.

After the formation of the Unity Government and the adoption of
Zimbabwean economy rebounded. GDP grew by 8-9% per year between 2009
and 2012. In November 2010, the International Monetary Fund described
the Zimbabwean economy as "completing its second year of buoyant
economic growth". The pan-African investment bank IMARA released a
favourable report in February 2011 on investment prospects in
Zimbabwe, citing an improved revenue base and higher tax receipts. In
January 2013, the finance ministry reported that they had only $217 in
their treasury and would apply for donations to finance the coming
elections. By 2014, Zimbabwe had recovered to levels seen in the 1990s
but growth faltered between 2012 and 2016. Inflation was 42% in 2018;
n June 2019, the inflation rate reached 175%, leading to mass unrest
across the country.

The mining sector is lucrative, with some of the world's largest
nationalise the company.

The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the
biggest diamond find in over a century. They have the potential to
mprove the fiscal situation of the country considerably, but almost
all revenues from the field have disappeared into the pockets of army
officers and ZANU-PF politicians. In terms of carats produced, the
Marange field is one of the largest diamond-producing projects in the
$350 million.

, Metallon Corporation was Zimbabwe's largest gold miner.

Zimbabwe's commercial farming sector was traditionally a source of
exports and foreign exchange and provided 400,000 jobs. However, the
Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. For example, between
and cattle slaughtered for beef fell from 605,000 head to 244,000
virtual halt after seizure or expropriation of white-owned coffee
farms in 2000 and has never recovered.

For the past ten years, the International Crops Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropics has been assisting Zimbabwe's farmers to adopt
conservation agriculture techniques, a sustainable method of farming
that can help increase yields. By applying the three principles of
minimum soil disturbance, legume-based cropping and the use of organic
mulch, farmers can improve infiltration, reduce evaporation and soil
erosion, and build up organic soil content. Between 2005 and 2011, the
number of smallholders practicing conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe
ncreased from 5,000 to more than 150,000. Cereal yields rose between

Mvurwi, a region in Mashonaland Central Province, once fell in the
"breadbasket region" of Zimbabwe, with fertile soils.  However, over
the past 30 years, this is one of the areas that have been negatively
mpacted by the land reforms, causing it to be less prosperous than it

Since the land reform programme in 2000, tourism in Zimbabwe has
billion (USD), or about 8.1% of Zimbabwe's GDP. Employment in travel
and tourism, as well as the industries indirectly supported by travel
and tourism, was 5.2% of national employment.

Several airlines pulled out of Zimbabwe between 2000 and 2007.
Australia's Qantas, Germany's Lufthansa, and Austrian Airlines were
among the first to pull out and in 2007 British Airways suspended all
Zimbabwe, which operated flights throughout Africa and a few
As of 2017, several major commercial airlines had resumed flights to

Zimbabwe has several major tourist attractions. Victoria Falls on the
Zambezi, which are shared with Zambia, are located in the north-west
of Zimbabwe. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for
these locations came to the Zimbabwe side, but now Zambia is the main
beneficiary. The Victoria Falls National Park is also in this area and
s one of the eight main national parks in Zimbabwe, the largest of

The Eastern Highlands are a series of mountainous areas near the
border with Mozambique. The highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani
at 2,593 m is located there as well as the Bvumba Mountains and the
Nyanga National Park. World's View is in these mountains, and it is
from here that places as far away as 60 - are visible and, on clear

Zimbabwe is unusual in Africa in that there are a number of ancient
and medieval ruined cities built in a unique dry stone style. Among
the most famous of these are the Great Zimbabwe ruins in Masvingo.
Other ruins include Khami, Dhlo-Dhlo and Naletale. The Matobo Hills
are an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 22 mi
billion years ago with granite being forced to the surface, then being
eroded to produce smooth "whaleback dwalas" and broken kopjes, strewn
founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning 'Bald
Heads'. They have become a tourist attraction because of their ancient
colonists like Leander Starr Jameson are buried in these hills at
World's View.

 Water supply and sanitation 
There are many successful small-scale water supply and sanitation
World Health Organization in 2012, 80% of Zimbabweans had access to
mproved (i.e. clean) drinking water sources, and only 40% of
Zimbabweans had access to improved sanitation facilities. Access to
mproved water supply and sanitation is noticeably limited in rural
areas. There are many factors that continue to determine the nature of
three major factors are the severely depressed state of the Zimbabwean
economy, the reluctance of foreign aid organisations to build and
finance infrastructure projects, and the political instability of the

 Science and technology 
Zimbabwe has relatively well-developed national infrastructure and a
long-standing tradition of promoting research and development, as
evidenced by the levy imposed on tobacco-growers since the 1930s to
country's solid knowledge base and abundant natural resources,
Zimbabwe has great growth potential. Zimbabwe was ranked 113rd in the
Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 122nd in 2019.

To achieve its growth potential, Zimbabwe will need to correct a
number of structural weaknesses. For instance, it lacks the critical
mass of researchers needed to trigger innovation. Although the
nfrastructure is in place to harness research and development to
Zimbabwe's socio-economic development, universities and research
nstitutions lack the financial and human resources to conduct
technologies to the business sector. The economic crisis has
areas of expertise (medicine, engineering, etc.) that is of growing
concern. More than 22% of Zimbabwean tertiary students were completing
their degrees abroad in 2012, compared to a 4% average for sub-Saharan
Africa as a whole. In 2012, there were 200 researchers (head count)
employed in the public sector, one-quarter of whom were women. This is
nformation for the diaspora on job and investment opportunities in

Despite the fact that human resources are a pillar of any research and
nnovation policy, the 'Medium Term Plan' '2011-2015' did not discuss
any explicit policy for promoting postgraduate studies in science and
engineering. The scarcity of new PhDs in science and engineering
fields from the University of Zimbabwe in 2013 was symptomatic of this

Nor does the development agenda to 2018, the 'Zimbabwe Agenda for
Sustainable Economic Transformation,' contain any specific targets for
ncreasing the number of scientists and engineers, or the staffing
the lack of co-ordination and coherence among governance structures
mplementation of existing policies.

The country's 'Second Science and Technology Policy' was launched in
June 2012, after being elaborated with UNESCO assistance. It replaces
the earlier policy dating from 2002. The 2012 policy prioritises
biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs),
technologies yet to emerge and scientific solutions to emergent
environmental challenges. The 'Second Science and Technology Policy'
also asserts the government commitment to allocating at least 1% of
GDP to research and development, focusing at least 60% of university
education on developing skills in science and technology and ensuring
that school pupils devote at least 30% of their time to studying

nternationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters' Web
of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). This placed Zimbabwe
(71), Botswana (103) and, above all, South Africa (175) and the
Seychelles (364). The average for sub-Saharan Africa was 20 scientific

 Ethnic groups 
According to the 2012 census report, 99.7% of the population is of
African origin. The majority people, the Shona, comprise 82%, while
Ndebele make up 14% of the population. The Ndebele descended from Zulu
migrations in the 19th century and the other tribes with which they
ntermarried. Up to one million Ndebele may have left the country over
the last five years, mainly for South Africa. Other ethnic groups
nclude Venda, Tonga, Tsonga, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau, Nambya, Tswana,

Minority ethnic groups include white Zimbabweans, who make up less
than 1% of the total population. White Zimbabweans are mostly of
British origin, but there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese,
French and Dutch communities. The white population dropped from a peak
of around 278,000, or 4.3% of the population, in 1975. The 2012 census
lists the total white population at 28,782 (roughly 0.22% of the
the United Kingdom (between 200,000 and 500,000 Britons are of
Rhodesian or Zimbabwean origin), South Africa, Botswana, Zambia,
Mozambique, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Coloureds form 0.5% of
the population, and various Asian ethnic groups, mostly of Indian and
Chinese origin, are also 0.5%.

Zimbabwe has 16 official languages and under the constitution, an Act
of Parliament may prescribe other languages as officially recognised
languages. English is the main language used in the education and
the population, Ndebele by 20%. Other minority Bantu languages include
Venda, Tsonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya. Less than
consider English their native language. Shona has a rich oral
tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, 'Feso'
by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956. English is primarily spoken
n the cities but less so in rural areas. Radio and television news
are broadcast in Shona, Sindebele and English.

There is a large community of Portuguese speakers in Zimbabwe, mainly
n the border areas with Mozambique and in major cities. Beginning in

According to the 2017 Inter Censal Demography Survey by the Zimbabwe
National Statistics Agency, 84% of Zimbabweans are Christian, 10% do
not belong to any religion, and 0.7% are Muslim. An estimated 62% of
the population attend religious services regularly. Approximately 69%
of Zimbabweans belong to Protestant Christianity, while 8% are Roman
Catholic. Pentecostal-charismatic forms of Christianity, in
Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist
and Methodist.

As in other African countries, Christianity may be mixed with enduring
traditional beliefs. Indigenous religion, which predates colonialism,
of the Zimbabwean religious field. Ancestral worship is the most
central to many ceremonial proceedings is the mbira dzavadzimu,
meaning "voice of the ancestors", which is an instrument related to
many lamellophones ubiquitous throughout Africa.

At independence, the policies of racial inequality were reflected in
the disease patterns of the black majority. The first five years after
ndependence saw rapid gains in areas such as immunisation coverage,
access to health care, and contraceptive prevalence rate. Zimbabwe was
thus considered internationally to have achieved a good record of

Zimbabwe suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases. The gains on
the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s,
the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the economic crisis since
n 1990, but recovered to 60 in 2015. The rapid drop was ascribed
mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Infant mortality rose from 6% in the
late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004. Official fertility rates over the last
mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zimbabwe was 614 compared to 960
n 2010-11 and 232 in 1990. The under five mortality rate, per 1,000
births was 75 in 2014 (94 in 2009). The number of midwives per 1,000
live births was unavailable in 2016 and the lifetime risk of death for

make moves to assist the ailing health service. The HIV infection rate
n Zimbabwe was estimated to be 14% for people aged 15-49 in 2009.
UNESCO reported a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women from

At the end of November 2008, some operations at three of Zimbabwe's
four major referral hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe
Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no
operating theatres working. Those hospitals still open were not able
to obtain basic drugs and medicines. The situation changed drastically
after the Unity Government and the introduction of the multi-currency
also contributed to the emigration of the doctors and people with
medical knowledge.
cholera epidemic. By December 2008 more than 10,000 people had been
nfected in all but one of Zimbabwe's provinces, and the outbreak had
emergency and asked for international aid. By 9 March 2009 The World
Health Organization estimated that 4,011 people had succumbed to the
cases recorded had reached 89,018. In Harare, the city council offered
free graves to cholera victims.

Large investments in education since independence has resulted in the
s lower than the 92% recorded in 2010 by the United Nations
Development Programme and the 97.0% recorded in the 2002 census, while

The wealthier portion of the population usually send their children to
ndependent schools as opposed to the government-run schools which are
attended by the majority as these are subsidised by the government.
School education was made free in 1980, but since 1988, the government
they now greatly exceed the real value of fees in 1980. The Ministry
of Education of Zimbabwe maintains and operates the government
the cabinet of Zimbabwe. The education department has stated that
Zimbabwe's children have not progressed beyond primary school.
Education came under threat since the economic changes in 2000, with
teachers going on strike because of low pay, students unable to
concentrate because of hunger, and the price of uniforms soaring
making this standard a luxury. Teachers were also one of the main
targets of Mugabe's attacks because he thought they were not strong

Zimbabwe's education system consists of two years of pre-school, seven
years of primary and six years of secondary schooling before students
can enter university in the country or abroad. The academic year in
Zimbabwe runs from January to December, with three terms, separated by
one-month breaks, with a total of 40 weeks of school per year.
National examinations are written during the third term in November,

There are seven public (government) universities as well as four
church-related universities in Zimbabwe that are internationally
accredited. The University of Zimbabwe, the first and largest, was
built in 1952 and is located in the Harare suburb of Mount Pleasant.
Notable alumni from Zimbabwean universities include Welshman Ncube,
the politicians in the government of Zimbabwe have obtained degrees
from universities in the United States or other universities abroad.

National University of Science and Technology is the second largest
established in 1991. The National University of Science and Technology
Zimbabwe and in Southern Africa but also among the international
fraternity of universities. Africa University is a United Methodist
university in Manicaland which attracts students from at least 36
African countries.

 Gender equality 
Women in Zimbabwe are disadvantaged in many facets including economic,
violence. A 2014 UN report found that deep rooted cultural issues,
toward women as well as societal norms impact the incentive for women
to participate in the economy and hinder their economic production.
Zimbabwe's constitution has provisions in it that provide incentive to
achieve greater gender equality, but the data shows that enforcement
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted a case
ssues such as gender violence and implementation of equality laws. It
Some of the obstacles in combating these issues are that there are
economic barriers to declaring sex and gender based violence to be
unacceptable as well as social barriers. Additionally, governmental
ssues as well as provide services to victims are underfunded and
unable to carry out their duties. The UN also provided economic
ncentive to adopt policies which would discourage these practices

Women are often seen as inferior, treated as objects, and viewed in
more valued than girls as boys pass on lineage, and the belief system
used in court, "'vakadzi ngavanyarare'", translates to "'women should
keep quiet,'" and as a result women are not consulted in
never refuse their husband's sexual advances, even if they know they
are infected with HIV from being unfaithful. As a result of this
that age group.

Zimbabwean women face cultural and social adversity in their
Journal of Education found that although the majority of primary
advancement to administrative positions, none of them had applied for
administrative openings. The women did not see themselves as equals
mother superseded all other parts of their lives. The women surveyed
n this trial were also found to have low self-esteem, a possible
correlation to their societal roles and gender stereotypes. In 2016
the FAO found that only 60% of women participated in the economy in
made up the majority of low education jobs, such as 70% of the
agriculture work force, yet only made up 16.7% and 21% of local
authority and managers in the private sector respectively. In the
and 33% of the Senate, despite the population ratio being 0.95 males
leadership roles, such as heads of schools, with increased funding in
line with #3 of the outlined Millennium Development Goals. Through
these policies Zimbabwe has made gains in closing the gender gap in
compared to 49.5% in females.

Zimbabwe experiences high rates of domestic and sexual violence; the
Zimbabwe National Statistics Office shows that rates are increasing.
number is likely higher. Reported rape increased 42% between 2010 and
Zimbabwe, 78% was inflicted by their spouse, father, or domestic
Zimbabwe experience sexual assault before turning 18; this is further
exacerbated by cultural norms such as child marriage. Young girls
often run away with older men when their educational opportunities are
limited or to escape a violent household. These incidents of domestic
violence or young girls running away with older men are usually not
nvestigated by police as men are viewed as superior to women in
Zimbabwean culture and their role as the dominant person in the
an ingrained cultural norm that violence can be a show of power and
love which makes ending domestic abuse in Zimbabwe difficult. The
Zimbabwe Women's Lawyers Association is an organisation that is
assisting the implementation of the legal framework, as defined in the
opportunities as a way of combating domestic and sexual violence.

Zimbabwe has many different cultures, with Shona beliefs and
ceremonies being prominent. The Shona people have many types of

Zimbabwe first celebrated its independence on 18 April 1980.
Celebrations are held at either the National Sports Stadium or Rufaro
Stadium in Harare. The first independence celebrations were held in
anthem is sung. The flame of independence is lit by the president
after parades by the presidential family and members of the armed
forces of Zimbabwe. The president also gives a speech to the people of
Zimbabwe which is televised for those unable to attend the stadium.
Zimbabwe also has a national beauty pageant, the Miss Heritage
Zimbabwe contest, which has been held annually since 2012.

Traditional arts in Zimbabwe include pottery, basketry, textiles,
and gained increasing international popularity. Most subjects of
carved figures of stylised birds and human figures among others are
made with sedimentary rock such as soapstone, as well as harder
gneous rocks such as serpentine and the rare stone verdite.
Zimbabwean artefacts can be found in countries like Singapore, China
and Canada. e.g. Dominic Benhura's statue in the Singapore Botanic

Shona sculpture has survived through the ages, and the modern style is
a fusion of African folklore with European influences. World-renowned
Zimbabwean sculptors include Nicholas, Nesbert and Anderson
Mukomberanwa, Tapfuma Gutsa, Henry Munyaradzi and Locardia Ndandarika.
apprenticeships with master sculptors in Zimbabwe.

Several authors are well known within Zimbabwe and abroad. Charles
Mungoshi is renowned in Zimbabwe for writing traditional stories in
English and in Shona, and his poems and books have sold well with both
the black and white communities. Catherine Buckle has achieved
nternational recognition with her two books 'African Tears' and
'Beyond Tears' which tell of the ordeal she went through under the
'The House of Hunger' by Dambudzo Marechera won an award in the UK in
'The Grass Is Singing', the first four volumes of 'Children of
Violence' sequence, as well as the collection of short stories
'African Stories' are set in Rhodesia. In 2013 NoViolet Bulawayo's
novel 'We Need New Names' was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. The
novel tells the story of the devastation and emigration caused by the
brutal suppression of Zimbabwean civilians during the Gukurahundi in
the early 1980s.

Notable artists include Henry Mudzengerere and Nicolas Mukomberanwa. A
beast. Zimbabwean musicians like Thomas Mapfumo, Oliver Mtukudzi, the
Bhundu Boys; Stella Chiweshe, Alick Macheso and Audius Mtawarira have
achieved international recognition. Among members of the white
minority community, Theatre has a large following, with numerous
theatrical companies performing in Zimbabwe's urban areas.

Like in many African countries, the majority of Zimbabweans depend on
a few staple foods. "Mealie meal", also known as cornmeal, is used to
or 'ilambazi'. 'Sadza' is made by mixing the cornmeal with water to
usually eaten as lunch or dinner, usually with sides such as gravy,
vegetables (spinach, chomolia, or spring greens/collard greens),
beans, and meat (stewed, grilled, roasted, or sundried). 'Sadza' is
also commonly eaten with curdled milk (sour milk), commonly known as
"lacto" ('mukaka wakakora'), or dried Tanganyika sardine, known
locally as 'kapenta' or 'matemba'. 'Bota' is a thinner porridge,
cooked without the additional cornmeal and usually flavoured with

Graduations, weddings, and any other family gatherings will usually be
celebrated with the killing of a goat or cow, which will be barbecued
or roasted by the family.

Even though the Afrikaners are a small group (10%) within the white
minority group, Afrikaner recipes are popular. 'Biltong', a type of
to dry in the shade. 'Boerewors' is served with 'sadza'. It is a long

As Zimbabwe was a British colony, some people there have adopted some
colonial-era English eating habits. For example, most people will have
'sadza', or sandwiches (which is more common in the cities). After
lunch, there is usually 4 o'clock tea (afternoon tea), which is served
before dinner. It is not uncommon for tea to be had after dinner.

Rice, pasta, and potato-based foods (French fries and mashed potato)
also make up part of Zimbabwean cuisine. A local favourite is rice
cooked with peanut butter, which is taken with thick gravy, mixed
vegetables and meat. A potpourri of peanuts known as 'nzungu', boiled
and sundried maize, black-eyed peas known as 'nyemba', and Bambara
'mutakura'. 'Mutakura' can also be the above ingredients cooked

Football '(also known as soccer)' is the most popular sport in
Zimbabwe. The Warriors have qualified for the Africa Cup of Nations
five times (2004, 2006, 2017, 2019, 2021), and won the Southern Africa
championship on six occasions (2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2017, 2018) and
the Eastern Africa cup once (1985). The team is ranked 68th in 2022.
Rugby union is a significant sport in Zimbabwe. The national side have
of twelve Test cricket playing nations and an ICC full member as well.
Notable cricket players from Zimbabwe include Andy Flower, Heath
Streak and Brendan Taylor.

Zimbabwe has won eight Olympic medals, one in field hockey with the
the 2008 Summer Olympics. Zimbabwe has done well in the Commonwealth
Games and All-Africa Games in swimming with Coventry obtaining 11 gold
medals in the different competitions. Zimbabwe has competed at
Wimbledon and the Davis Cup in tennis, most notably with the Black
family, which comprises Wayne Black, Byron Black and Cara Black. The
Zimbabwean Nick Price held the official World Number 1 golf status
longer than any player from Africa has done.

Other sports played in Zimbabwe are basketball, volleyball, netball,
and water polo, as well as squash, motorsport, martial arts, chess,
cycling, polocrosse, kayaking and horse racing. However, most of these

Zimbabwean professional rugby league players playing overseas are
Masimbaashe Motongo and Judah Mazive. Former players include now
SANZAAR CEO Andy Marinos who made an appearance for South Africa at
the Super League World Nines and featured for the Sydney Bulldogs as
Gray, who spent time at the Brisbane Broncos.

Zimbabwe has had success in karate as Zimbabwe's Samson Muripo became
Kyokushin world champion in Osaka, Japan in 2009. Muripo is a two-time
World Kyokushi Karate Champion and was the first black African to
become the World Kyokushin Karate Champion.

The media of Zimbabwe is now once again diverse, having come under
tight restriction between 2002 and 2008 by the government during the
economic and political crisis. The Zimbabwean constitution promises
freedom of the media and expression. Since the appointment of a new
media and information minister in 2013 the media is facing less
of the strict media laws as unconstitutional. In July 2009 the BBC and
CNN were able to resume operations and report legally and openly from
Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Media, Information and Publicity
carrying out lawful activities inside Zimbabwe". The BBC welcomed the
move saying, "we're pleased at being able to operate openly in
Zimbabwe once again".

nclusive, power-sharing government. In May 2010 the commission
licensed three privately owned newspapers, including the previously
banned 'Daily News', for publication. Reporters Without Borders
became the first independent daily newspaper to be published in
Zimbabwe in seven years. ZBC's monopoly in the broadcasting sector was
ended with the licensing of two private radio stations in 2012.

Since the 2002 Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act was
countries by exiled Zimbabweans. Because the internet is unrestricted,
many Zimbabweans are allowed to access online news sites set up by
exiled journalists. Reporters Without Borders claims the media
environment in Zimbabwe involves "surveillance, threats, imprisonment,
censorship, blackmail, abuse of power and denial of justice are all
brought to bear to keep firm control over the news." The main
the media has progressively relaxed since 2009.

media as 130th out of 180, noting that "access to information has
mproved and self-censorship has declined, but journalists are still
often attacked or arrested". The government also bans many foreign
broadcasting stations from Zimbabwe, including the CBC, Sky News,
Channel 4, American Broadcasting Company, Australian Broadcasting
Corporation, and Fox News. News agencies and newspapers from other
Western countries and South Africa have also been banned from the

 National symbols 
The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird appears on the national flags and the
coats of arms of both Zimbabwe and Rhodesia, as well as on banknotes
and coins (first on Rhodesian pound and then Rhodesian dollar). It
famous soapstone bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the
ancient city of Great Zimbabwe.

Balancing rocks are geological formations all over Zimbabwe. The rocks
are perfectly balanced without other supports. They are created when
ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks
banknotes. The ones found on the current notes of Zimbabwe, named the
Banknote Rocks, are located in Epworth, approximately 9 mi south east
of Harare. There are many different formations of the rocks,
ncorporating single and paired columns of three or more rocks. These
formations are a feature of south and east tropical Africa from
northern South Africa northwards to Sudan. The most notable formations
n Zimbabwe are located in the Matobo National Park in Matabeleland.

The national anthem of Zimbabwe is "Blessed be the Land of Zimbabwe"
(; ). It was introduced in March 1994 after a nationwide competition
to replace  as a distinctly Zimbabwean song. The winning entry was a
Changundega. It has been translated into all three of the main
languages of Zimbabwe.

                               See also                               
* Index of Zimbabwe-related articles
* Outline of Zimbabwe

                           Further reading                            
* .
* Bourne, Richard. 'Catastrophe: What Went Wrong in Zimbabwe?' (2011);
* , 286 pages. Scholarly essays on displacement as a result of
Zimbabwe's continuing crisis, with a focus on diasporic communities in
Britain and South Africa; also explores such topics as the revival of
Rhodesian discourse.
* Meredith, Martin. 'Mugabe: Power, Plunder, and the Struggle for
Zimbabwe's Future' (2007) [https://www.amazon.com/dp/B003STCO04/
excerpt and text search].
* .
* Smith, Ian Douglas. 'Bitter Harvest: Zimbabwe and the Aftermath of
ts Independence' (2008) [https://www.amazon.com/dp/1857826043/
excerpt and text search].
* David Coltart. The struggle continues: 50 Years of Tyranny in
Zimbabwe. Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd: South Africa, 2016.

                            External links                            
* [https://www.zim.gov.zw/ Official Government of Zimbabwe Web Portal]
* [https://www.parlzim.gov.zw/ Parliament of Zimbabwe]
* [https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14113249 Zimbabwe profile]
from the BBC News
* [https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/zimbabwe/
Zimbabwe]. 'The World Factbook'. Central Intelligence Agency.
Zimbabwe] from 'UCB Libraries GovPubs'
* [http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=ZW Key
Development Forecasts for Zimbabwe] from International Futures
World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Zimbabwe]

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