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From: Yves Bellefeuille <yan@storm.ca>
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Subject: rec.travel.europe FAQ
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URL: http://www.faqs.org/faqs/travel/europe/faq

Rec.travel.europe FAQ

This FAQ was written by Yves Bellefeuille <yan@storm.ca>, with help
from Martin Rich <M.G.Rich@city.ac.uk>. Thanks also to "Darren", who
any comments to me at <yan@storm.ca>.

None of the "URLs" or "links" mentioned in this FAQ should require
=46lash, Java or JavaScript. If they do, please let me know. You might
also want to write to the address "webmaster" at the domain involved to
ask them to provide web pages that don't require Java or JavaScript;
for example, to complain about a web page at aol.com, write to

Table of Contents

  About the newsgroup itself

  1.  What countries does the newsgroup cover?
  2.  Where should I post about rooms or services wanted or offered?
  3.  What other newsgroups deal with travelling or with Europe?
  4.  What is "Google"?
  5.  How can I complain about "spam"?

  Travel planning and preparations

  6.  I'm going to Europe for the first time. Where should I go?
  7.  Should I go on my own or with a tour?
  8.  What guidebooks are available?
  9.  Do I need a visa to visit <some country>?
  10. What's the European Union (EU)?
  11. What's a "Schengen visa"?
  12. What should I pack?
  13. What should I see during my trip?
  14. What should I bring my European friends as gifts?

  Money and financial matters

  15. What currency should I use?
  16. What's the "Interbank" exchange rate?
  17. Will my bank machine card or credit card work in Europe?
  18. Should I use traveller's cheques?
  19. Should I change money before I go or when I get there?
  20. How do I change money at a bank or _bureau de change_?
  21. What does "VAT" mean?
  22. Can I get a VAT refund?
  23. Can I buy "duty-free"?


  24. Where can I get the best airfare?
  25. Is my driver's licence valid in Europe?
  26. Can I drive as fast as I want in Germany?
  27. How can I get from Charles de Gaulle (CDG) airport to Paris?
  28. Where can I get information on trains?
  29. Should I buy a rail pass?
  30. Where should I buy train tickets?


  31. I speak language <X> and I'm going to country <Y>. How widely is
      my language spoken in this country?
  32. What do NTSC, PAL and SECAM mean?
  33. Can I drink the tap water in Europe?
  34. Should I be worried about crime in Europe?
  35. What's the time difference?
  36. What's the weather like over there?
  37. How can I phone to Europe?

  * Airlines
  * Trains
  * Buses (coaches)
  * Other Useful Links

V.    To Do: Possible Additions


=46or general information on Usenet, see the "news.newusers.questions
Official Home Page" at

=46or information on standard Usenet etiquette, see the "NNQ" home page
mentioned above and Usenet group news.announce.newusers. If you're new
to Usenet, *please* read at least the following guidelines:

* Welcome to Usenet!

* Rules for posting to Usenet

* Hints on writing style for Usenet

* A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community

* Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette

* Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It


Readers of rec.travel.europe might also want to consult the following

* Euro Currency Changeover FAQ, by Arwel Parry

* Travel in the UK, by Martin Rich

The following FAQs from Usenet group rec.travel.air may also be

* Airline information on-line on the Internet FAQ, by John R. Levine

* Airline Ticket Consolidators and Bucket Shops FAQ, by Edward


About the newsgroup itself

According to its charter, rec.travel.europe covers "all aspects of
travel in Europe", including "Iceland, Russia, Turkey, Armenia,
Georgia, Azerbaijan, Malta, and Cyprus". The charter is at:

use rec.travel.asia instead.

offering services to tourists, please post in rec.travel.marketplace,
not in rec.travel.europe. See below for a list of Usenet groups related
to travel.

misc.transport.rail.europe  Railroads & railways in all of Europe
talk.politics.european-union  The EU and political integration in Europe

The group misc.transport.rail.europe tends to focus on technical
aspects of railways and railway technology. Non-technical questions
about travelling by train in Europe should be posted in

or cultures (soc.culture.albanian, soc.culture.austria,
these groups before posting in them.

All these groups are in the so-called "Big Eight" hierarchies and

Google, http://groups.google.com/ , lets you search almost all Usenet

To search posts that have appeared in rec.travel.europe, choose
"Advanced Groups Search". Fill in one of the four options under "Find
message" and enter "rec.travel.europe" under "Group"; you can also
choose other options, such as "Message Dates", if you wish. Press
"Google Search" to complete your request.

To search all groups in the rec.travel.* hierarchy, enter
"rec.travel.*" as the Group. To search all groups with "europe" in
their name (including misc.transport.rail.europe,
enter "*europe*" as the Newsgroup -- note the asterisks both before and
after the word "europe".

Send a copy of the message to the address "postmaster" at the poster's
from a user at aol.com, write to <postmaster@aol.com>. Be sure to
nclude all the "headers". With most programs, you can simply type "h"
to see the headers; with Outlook Express, try Ctrl-F3.

Travel planning and preparations

A common mistake is to try to see too much on a short trip. "Major"
cities such as Paris, Rome and London are easily worth an entire week,
even on a first trip. Even "minor" cities are worth an overnight stay.
You'll typically see more if you choose to explore one or two cities
thoroughly rather than if you try to see the whole of Europe

As a rough rule of thumb, don't try to visit more than one country for
every week of your trip.

Most of Europe is very easy for an independent traveller to visit. The
newsgroup is full of experienced travellers who will be happy to offer
enjoyment is planning and deciding where to go, finding places to stay
and eat, being able to change their plans whenever they want to do so,
and often travelling without knowing for certain what to expect next.

A tour will relieve you of the responsibility of arranging your own
accommodation, of deciding how much time to spend in one place, and up
to a point will insulate you from language difficulties. But it will
also insulate you from the pleasure of mixing with local people, and

A tour might also be worth considering if you have a particular
cultural, historical or sporting interest and want to base your trip
around that.

(Thanks to Jeri Dansky <danskyj@earthlink.net> for helping with this

There isn't a single best guidebook: different books address different
needs. Some are designed for budget travellers while some focus on the
more affluent. Some provide lots of practical information, while others
focus on the attractions. Some try to combine different types of
nformation; some are more focused.

Books within the same series may vary in quality, as they are often
main guidebook series.

Good guides for major cities. Helpful for self-guided walking tours.
Organized by street and block, so you know what restaurants and stores
are near the tourist sights. Good details on major sights and museums.
Accommodations and restaurants are not intended for budget travellers.

Good for sights, including finding little known points of interest. No
nformation on hotels or restaurants.

Blue Guides
Good for those who want detailed information on museums and on

Not often mentioned; has been recommended for Estonia, Latvia, and

Very good for historical and cultural perspectives. Well written and

Dorling Kindersley (DK) Eyewitness
Beautiful books. Good for figuring out what sights to see and also
useful as a souvenir, but has rather little actual information.

General purpose, mainstream guidebook with information on sights,
travellers. Some strong praise for the restaurant recommendations. The
feature "If you have one day...", "If you have three days...", etc., is
useful for travel planning. Not strong on historical background.

All-around guidebook with information on major sights, restaurants,

Gault Millau
Covers hotels and restaurants in France. Less reliable than Michelin
Red Guide -- some say it's much less reliable -- but nicely written,
and can be useful as a check to confirm restaurant recommendations
listed in Michelin.

Greats Eats/Great Sleeps
(formerly called Cheap Eats/Cheap Sleeps)
Not always cheap (by some people's standards), but good values, which
explains the name change. Detailed and accurate.

Guide du routard
=46or the back-pack and budget traveller; has a fresh and somewhat
opinionated writing style. Very useful for budget lodgings.

Good for getting the flavour of a place.

Karen Brown
=46or those willing to spend more money. Some say they've found memorable
lodgings through these books; others say they've found the descriptions

Similar to DK Eyewitness (and apparently the inspiration for that

Knopf Citymap Guides
Lists restaurants, caf=E9s, shopping and sights, with some hotel

Let's Go
Student written guides for budget travellers. Considerable information
on budget accommodation, restaurants, and public transport -- as well
as things like laundromats. Good background information on history and
culture, although not extensive.

Lonely Planet
Notable for amount of information crammed into one book. Strong on the
laundromats, bookstores with English language books. Lots of maps, but
colourful writing that marked this series is a thing of the past.
Covers a range of prices; used to be focused on the budget traveller,
but have moved somewhat upscale over time.

Michelin Green=20
Detailed information on sites, with a star rating system (3 stars:
many find useful in planning a trip.

Michelin Red=20
Hotel and restaurant recommendations. Some find them too upscale.
Others point to the non-starred but "good food at moderate prices"
listings as a way of balancing price and quality.

Rick Steves
the countries covered, but focus on Rick's perception of the
nexperienced travellers, beyond their student years, who would like to
try independent travel. Some object to the pace he recommends. Some

Rough Guides
These guides usually get good marks for general background and
use them to decide where to go, but don't use them for hotel or
naccuracies. A number of people find the books to have a condescending
attitude which was quite annoying.

Time Out
Well-regarded guides to specific cities, with useful information on

Touring Club Italiano
The hardcover regional red guides ("Guide rosse") cover the visual arts
and architecture nearly exhaustively, and provide historical
ntroductions with separate sections on the history of arts and crafts.
Notable features of local cuisine are sometimes covered in some detail,
but no recommendations for hotels or restaurants are given. There are
also cheaper red guides ("Guide rosse economiche") and still cheaper

Whether you need a visa or not depends on your nationality. The only
you're planning to visit. You'll find a list of foreign consulate
offices in the USA at:

There's a list of visa requirements for US citizens at:

dea to check with the consulate of the country you're visiting: these
lists are sometimes out of date.

The European Union, formerly known as the European Common Market or the
European Economic Community (EEC), started as a "free trade" or "common
market" agreement. Although trade and economic policy are still its
major focus, it now also deals with social policy, external affairs,
and other matters.

The countries in the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the
Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and
the United Kingdom.

=46or travellers, the main effect of the EU is that border controls at
airports and elsewhere often have two queues, one for citizens of EU
countries and one for citizens of other countries. Choose the queue
that's appropriate for you.

=46or more information on the EU, see http://europa.eu.int/ .

Some countries in the EU have agreed to participate in the "Schengen
agreement" and to unify their entry and visa requirements. In general,
this means that once you're admitted to one of these countries, you can
a "Schengen visa") allows you to enter any other country.

The countries participating in this agreement are: Austria, Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. Iceland, Norway and
Switzerland also participate, even though they're not in the EU.

There are no border controls between the Schengen countries, so you
another. However, some countries require that you carry your passport
or identity card with you at all times and show it to a police officer
on request; these requirements remain in force.

A consequence of this is that if you're allowed to remain in a Schengen
country as a tourist for 90 days (for example), you can go to any other
Schengen country during that period, but you can't be in *any* Schengen
country once the period expires. You are also usually required to wait
for a certain period of time (often 90 days) before re-entering the
Schengen area. Please consult the consulate of the countries you're

a visa, you should apply to the country where you're planning to spend
the most time.

The standard advice is to bring half as many clothes as you think
you'll need, and twice as much money. If you think that you couldn't
comfortably carry your suitcase or backpack for a few hundred metres or
yards, you've almost certainly packed too much.

The "Travelite FAQ", http://www.travelite.org/ , gives suggestions on
"travelling light", although it sometimes seems rather extreme. For
example, although men might want to "trim their underarm hairs to about
a half-inch in length", as the FAQ used to suggest, it's doubtful that
this will result in a significant difference in the weight of the
anti-perspirant you'll have to bring with you!

things you might want to bring when travelling to a foreign country:

 - plug converter if bringing an electric appliance
 - passport, and photocopy kept separately
 - plane and train tickets, and photocopy kept separately
 - train and hotel reservations
 - health insurance policy
 - vaccination certificate
 - international driver's licence, as well as your national licence
 - foreign cash
 - credit card, debit card, bank machine card
 - travellers' cheques
 - numbers to call if credit card or travellers' cheques are stolen
 - telephone company calling card

There's also a "Universal Packing List" at

about your interests. Are you looking for architecture, fine food,

You might want to use Google to see what suggestions have been made in
the past. A local specialty or delicacy might be appropriate. Anything
n Europe.

The Canadian maintainer of this FAQ often brings maple syrup and other
maple products as gifts. They can be hard to find in Europe and are
local photo book.

Money and financial matters

Always use the currency of the country you're visiting. Even if US

Some merchants will offer to bill credit card payments in your own
currency. This is sometimes called "dynamic currency conversion". This
can also happen when getting cash with a bank machine card. The
exchange rate will be much less favourable that if you're billed in the
local currency. Therefore, you should always insist on being billed in
the local currency.

As of 1 January 2002, a new currency, the euro, is used in the
following countries: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, and
Spain. For more information, see the Euro Currency Changeover FAQ by
Arwel Parry, http://www.cartref.demon.co.uk/eurofaq.htm .

the local currency and the euro is fixed. This is the case in
Bosnia-Herzegovina and Lithuania. In these countries, it makes no

The "Interbank" rate is the rate banks charge each other when trading
large amounts. The rate you see listed in the newspapers is usually the

Unless you're changing very large amounts, the rate you'll get won't be
as favourable as the Interbank rate, but you can still use it to
"electronic" transactions involving a bank machine card or credit card,
expect to pay about 1 % more than the Interbank rate. When changing
traveller's cheques or cash, you'll usually have to pay 2 % to 3 % over
the Interbank rate. Try to avoid paying any other fee or commission.

Many newspapers list foreign exchange or "Forex" rates. You can also
find them at http://www.oanda.com/ and

Keep in mind that different countries have different banking cultures,
and that different terms may be used in different countries. A card can
fulfil more than one of the following functions:

* Bank machine card (ATM card): With a bank machine card, you can go to
a bank machine (ATM) and get cash. Examples: Plus, Cirrus, Interac,
Maestro, Carte bleue, EC-Card.

* Credit card: With a credit card, you can pay for purchases and you
Express, Discover.

* Debit card: With a debit card, you can pay for purchases and the
amount is immediately withdrawn from your account. Please note that
these cards are used to pay for purchases, not to obtain cash from a
machine. Examples: Maestro, Carte bleue, EC-Card, Electron, Delta,
Switch, Solo. Debit cards are often *not* accepted in a foreign

A card can fulfil more than one of these functions. The following
networks are related and a card may accept more than one of them:

 - MasterCard/EuroCard, Cirrus, Maestro;
 - Visa, Plus, Electron.

However, it's still important to note the differences between these
functions. For more information, see:

Any of these cards will generally get the best exchange rate. Many
banks charge 1 % over the "Interbank" rate; ask your bank for details.
Some banks also charge an additional flat fee each time you use your
card; try to find a bank that doesn't charge such fees.

tourist destinations (Prague, Budapest, Warsaw, and so on), but may not
be accepted in smaller cities or in countries with less tourism.

Here are some specific comments about these three kinds of cards.

* Bank machine cards: Plus, Cirrus and Maestro cards are widely
accepted in Europe. Bank machines will offer you a choice of languages,
ncluding English.

MasterCard/EuroCard/Cirrus/Maestro recommends that you use a 4-digit
dentification (PIN) code when travelling abroad; if your code is
longer than this, you should change it to something shorter before
leaving. Visa/Plus recommends that you use a 4-digit to 6-digit code.
Also, European bank machines don't have letters on the numeric keypad;
f you use the letters to remember your code, you'll have to learn the
numbers instead.

Some banks now add a surcharge to foreign transactions; check with your
bank before leaving. In addition, the bank that owns the bank machine
may also add a surcharge.

machine's owner without a notice appearing on the machine itself,
bank machines to avoid. However, please make sure that the fee really

As noted above, always make sure that you're billed in the local
currency, not in your own currency.

* Credit cards: Both Visa and MasterCard/EuroCard are widely accepted
n Europe for purchases. American Express is much less useful, and
Discover is not usually accepted in Europe.

You can also get a cash advance using your credit card; in this case,
your own bank will charge you interest starting on the day you received
the funds and may also add a surcharge for foreign transactions. The
bank giving you the money shouldn't ask for any additional commission
or fee; if it does, go elsewhere, and again please write to me at
<yan@storm.ca> so that I may prepare a list of banks to avoid.

Some credit card companies become suspicious if the card suddenly
users suggest letting your credit card company know that you'll be

As noted above, always make sure that you're billed in the local
currency, not in your own currency.

* Debit cards: As stated previously, these cards often aren't accepted
n foreign countries. For example, foreign debit cards aren't accepted
n Germany and Denmark. [Is this still true? Are there any other
countries where foreign debit cards are not accepted?] However, a debit
card might also be a bank machine card or credit card and can be used
as such abroad.

card (two different cards) and, if you wish, a debit card. Use the bank
machine card to get money from bank machines and use the credit card or
credit card to get a cash advance, but you'll then have to pay
nterest. If you wish to be prudent, you can bring more than one card
of each kind in case a card isn't accepted for some reason or you run
nto any problems. Of course, you should store the cards separately in
case they're lost or stolen.

(Usage varies considerably by country; I've tried hard to make this
explanation as clear as possible both in Europe and elsewhere. If the
text isn't clear to you or if you have any suggestions, please write to

You'll usually get a worse exchange rate if you use traveller's cheques
like to have them as a backup in case they can't use their bank machine
card or credit card. If you carry traveller's cheques, ask the issuing
company for the addresses of its offices or of affiliated companies

Some users of the newsgroup have expressed dissatisfaction with the way
Thomas Cook handled reports of lost or stolen traveller's cheques and
company instead.

You should get traveller's cheques in your own currency, to avoid

(perhaps $ 20 to $ 50 per traveller) before you leave. Most airports
now have cash machines, and it's doubtful whether any major airport

However, if you have to make a large initial cash payment -- to pay for
accommodation, for example -- check what's the maximum daily
for some purposes.

=46oreign exchange establishments list a "buy" rate and a "sell" rate for
various currencies. The rates are shown from the establishment's point
of view: if you want to obtain the local currency, look at the "buy"
currency and giving you the local currency in exchange. The difference
between the two rates reflects the establishment's profit.

Before changing any money, make sure you know the exchange rate and any
commission or charges.

"VAT" means "Value Added Tax"; it's a form of sales tax. The prices you

You can sometimes get a VAT refund for goods purchased in another
country. Please note that a refund is only available for goods: it's
not available for services such as transportation, hotel rooms,
the country itself, such as food or gasoline (petrol); you must bring
the goods back home.

The requirements to get a VAT refund vary by country. Usually, you must
these stores are often identified by signs saying "Tax Free Shopping"
or the like. You must usually make a minimum purchase; sometimes the
minimum is quite high. You must make the minimum purchase in the store
tself; you can't combine purchases made in more than one store.

leave, or you may have to send the documentation by mail. Ask for
office when leaving the country, and before checking your luggage, if
travelling by air.

travellers from outside the EU.

Buying "duty-free" is somewhat similar to getting a VAT refund. In a
the purchase are omitted. You can usually shop in duty-free stores only
mmediately before you leave a country (including your own country);
as proof that you're about to take a flight out of the country.

about to leave the EU. However, unlike VAT refunds, travellers from the
EU are also eligible to buy duty-free when leaving the EU.

Duty-free only refers to the taxes levied by the country where you're
buying. You may have to pay custom duties on the goods when entering
another country even if they were duty-free where you bought them.

Buying duty-free is worthwhile only for goods that are usually heavily
taxed; tobacco and alcohol are common examples. If duty-free goods seem
quite inexpensive to you, this means that the goods are heavily taxed
n your own country. Don't assume that something is a bargain just
because it's duty-free; compare the price to what you'd normally have
to pay.


The group rec.travel.europe doesn't specialize in air travel; see
Consolidators and Bucket Shops FAQ, by Edward Hasbrouck, at

checked the prices offered by Cheaptickets, Expedia, Lowestfare and
Travelocity for several intra-US routes. It concluded that "none of the
four web sites consistently offered complete and fair listings of all
viable flights", and that it was often possible to get a better fare
from a travel agent.

Within Europe, you will also find that some low-cost airlines, such as
EasyJet, http://www.easyjet.com/ , and Ryanair,=20
one of these airlines, book directly using their web site.

country, it's strongly recommended that you get an International
Driver's Licence (IDL), whether or not it's strictly required legally.
$ 10 and you'll need a passport-size photo. In Canada, contact the CAA.
You must carry both the IDL and the licence from your own country.

legitimate and aren't legally valid. In particular, you can only obtain
an IDL if you have a valid licence in your own country.

t's recommended that you drive no faster than 130 km/h (about 80 miles
onus is on you to prove that you weren't at fault. Note that very
frequently there are "local" speed limits even on the Autobahn.

The Paris Transport FAQ by Delphine Kensit,
maintained, but still explains the main choices.

There's a map of the public transport access routes to the Paris
airports at
(PDF format). The Web site for the Paris public transport authority
(RATP) is at http://www.ratp.fr/ .

The German Deutsche Bahn has an excellent WWW server in German and
English with information on many trains, including trains in other
European countries: http://reiseauskunft.bahn.de/ . See below for links
to other rail companies.

When using on-line resources, write the name of cities using the local
language. For example, use "Roma" instead of Rome, "Wien" instead of
Vienna, and "Praha" instead of Prague.

Many users recommend the "Thomas Cook European Timetable". Your library
may have a copy, or you can buy it from

you'll probably be better off buying "point to point" tickets.

Non-Europeans may buy a "Eurail pass". This pass can be bought before
leaving or in Europe itself, but a surcharge of 10 % must be paid if
bought in Europe. Europeans may buy an "Interrail pass". Passes are
also available for specific countries and regions: consult the WWW
or see http://www.railpass.com/ .

Except for the Eurail pass and other passes, buy train tickets in
Europe rather than before leaving, since this is cheaper. An exception
s if you can get a discount because of an early purchase. If you must
buy tickets in advance, try the appropriate train company or Deutsche
Bahn: see the links below. In particular, be wary of the Rail Europe
WWW site, because of its high fees.

Ask about rebates, which are often available, especially for students
and youth, for groups travelling together (sometimes rebates are
available for groups as small as two persons), for travel in the
evening or during the weekend, or for same-day return trips (round

Some companies don't sell tickets on-line to non-Europeans and ask you
to contact Rail Europe; however, you can usually still purchase these
tickets on-line from the Deutsche Bahn site at


    my language spoken in this country?

The following table shows how widely English, French, German and
Russian are spoken in some of the major tourist destinations, using the
following scale:

   by 50 % or more as a second language, according to Eurobarometer
   63.4, September 2005).

   second language).

                   English   French    German    Russian   Other common
                                                           (10% or more)

Austria            1         2         1         3
Benelux            1         2*        1         3 =20
  The Netherlands,
Czech Republic     2         3         2         2
=46rance             2         1         3         3         Spanish
Germany            1         2         1         3*
Hungary            2         3         2         3
Nordic Countries   1         3         2         3         Swedish
Russia             2         3         3         1
Spain              2         3         3*        3
Turkey             2         3         3         3
United Kingdom     1         2         3         3

* Widely spoken in some areas, but not in the entire country.

These acronyms refer to the systems used by television broadcasts and
videocassette players (VCR).

The USA, Canada and Japan use the NTSC system. France, Greece and most
"Eastern European" countries use SECAM. The rest of Europe uses PAL.

A television set will only work with a specific system. For example, a
television bought in a country that uses NTSC won't work in a country
North America or Japan won't work in Europe.

Similarly, a videotape will only work in a videocassette player (VCR)
that uses the same system; thus, if you're from the USA and want to buy
a videotape in Europe to watch it later at home, make sure it's in NTSC
formal. It's possible to have a videotape converted from one format to
another, but it's rather expensive and the results are often poor.

=46or more information, see http://www.faqs.org/faqs/de-film/formate/ .
This document is in German, but the list of formats used in various
countries in section 1.3 should be easy enough to understand.

Tap water is safe to drink everywhere in Europe except Turkey.
(However, concerns have been expressed in the group about tap water in
Russia, especially in St. Petersburg, and in the Canary Islands.) In
you're used to or it may have an unusual taste, but it's still safe to

Don't be misled if you see people carrying mineral water bottles: it's
quite common to fill these bottles with tap water, for convenience.

Violent crime is much less a problem in Europe than in the USA. You
countries. In general, no special precautions are necessary when
travelling in Europe; just use normal prudence.

European cities usually don't have "dangerous" neighbourhoods or areas
n the way that some US cities do.

Weapons are regulated much more strictly in Europe than in the USA,
especially firearms. Don't carry any weapons, including mace, pepper
the country concerned to ensure that they are legal.

Time is calculated relative to "Universal Time" (UT) or "Greenwich Mean
Time" (GMT). (In practice, UT and GMT mean the same thing.) If you're
n North or South America, you're earlier than (behind) Universal Time.
later than (ahead of) Universal Time.

Here are the time zones for European countries, relative to Universal

Universal Time -3/-2/-1:

  Canaries (Spain)
  United Kingdom

UT +1:
  Czech Republic
  Macedonia (FYROM)
  Serbia and Montenegro
  Spain (except Canaries)

UT +2:

UT +3:
  Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg (see below)

UT +4:

Russia has several time zones, varying from UT +2 to UT +12. Moscow and
St. Petersburg are in the UT +3 zone.

=46or information on time zones in other countries, see


New York City and Toronto are at Universal Time minus 5 hours. If it's
noon (12:00) in New York and Toronto, it's 17:00 in London and 20:00 in

Los Angeles and Vancouver are at Universal Time minus 8 hours. If it's
noon in Los Angeles and Vancouver, it's 20:00 in London and 23:00 in

Japan is at Universal Time plus 14 hours. If it's noon in Japan, it's

During "Summer Time" or "Daylight Saving Time", add one hour to the
normal time. Please note that summer time is in effect at different
times in different countries; however, all countries of the European
Union change on the same date.

Weather forecasts for major European cities are available at:

=46or historical weather data such as average temperature and

To phone abroad, you need to dial four components: (i) the code to "dial
out" of the country you're in; (ii) the code to "dial into" the country
you're phoning; (iii) the area code of the city you want to phone;
(iv) the phone number you want to phone.

(i) Code to "dial out": For the USA and Canada, the code to "dial out"
s usually 011. For Australia, use 0011, and for Japan, use 001. If this

(ii) Code to "dial into": A list of codes to "dial into" many European
countries follows. If the country you want to phone isn't listed,

(iii) Area code: It's often necessary to modify the area code when
f any. See the list below for more information.

(iv) Phone number: Simply dial the subscriber's phone number.

Example: You're in the USA and want to dial to Germany, in Berlin, the
number (030) 12 34 56 78.

The code to dial out of the USA is 011. The code to dial into Germany is
"0". Therefore, you should dial: 011-49-30-12 34 56 78.

The usual method to write a number for someone who'll be phoning from
another country is as follows: "+49 30 12 34 56 78". This means: dial
the code to phone out of the country you're in, and then dial what's

Note that, in this case, the initial "0" in the area code has been
omitted, since you don't dial it if you're phoning internationally. If
you're phoning from Germany itself, remember to put it back in, if

Country            To "dial out"   To "dial into"  Area code

Albania            00              355             Omit initial "0"
Andorra            0               376             Does not exist
Austria            00              43              Omit initial "0"
Belgium            00              32              Omit initial "0"
Bosnia-Herzegovina 00              387             Omit initial "0"
Bulgaria           00              359             Omit initial "0"
Croatia            00              385             Omit initial "0"
Czech Republic     00              420             Does not exist
Denmark            00              45
Estonia            00              372            =20
=46inland            00              358             Omit initial "0"
=46rance             00              33              Omit initial "0"
Germany            00              49              Omit initial "0"
Greece             00              30              Dial entire code
Hungary            00              36
                   048 to dial to Northern Ireland
Latvia             00              371             Omit initial "8"
Lithuania          810             370             Omit initial "8"
Luxembourg         00              352             Does not exist
Macedonia (FYROM)  99              389             Omit initial "0"
Malta              00              356            =20
Netherlands        00              31              Omit initial "0"
Norway             00              47              Dial entire code
                                               Ignore the word "prefix",
                                               if indicated.
Rumania            00              40              Omit initial "0"
Russia             8 <tone> 10     7               Omit initial "8"
Serbia-Montenegro  99              381             Omit initial "0"
Slovakia           00              421             Omit initial "0"
Slovenia           00              386             Omit initial "0"
Spain              00              34              Dial entire code
Sweden             00              46              Omit initial "0"
Switzerland        00              41              Omit initial "0"
Turkey             00              90              Omit initial "0"
Ukraine            8 <tone> 10     380            =20
United Kingdom     00              44              Omit initial "0"


* Airlines:

Airline information on-line on the Internet FAQ, by John R. Levine -

=46AQs from Usenet group rec.travel.air -

Quick Aid - http://www.quickaid.com/
  (links to many airports in the USA and in other countries)

* Trains:

Deutsche Bahn (Germany) International Timetable -
  The best general on-line timetable, for Germany and other countries.

Eurail and other passes - http://www.railpass.com/
  (at the Deutsche Bahn site)

Austria - http://www.oebb.at/
Belgium - http://www.b-rail.be/
Bulgaria - http://razpisanie.bdz.bg/
Czech Republic - http://www.cdrail.cz/
Denmark - http://www.dsb.dk/
Estonia - http://www.evr.ee/
=46inland - http://www.vr.fi/
=46rance - http://www.sncf.com/
Germany - http://www.bahn.de/
  timetable at http://reiseauskunft.bahn.de/
Hungary - http://www.mav.hu/
Latvia - http://www.ldz.lv/
Luxembourg - http://www.cfl.lu/
Netherlands - http://www.ns.nl/
Norway - http://www.nsb.no/
Rumania - http://www.cfr.ro/
Russia - http://www.css-mps.ru/
Spain - http://www.renfe.es/
Switzerland - http://www.sbb.ch/
Turkey - http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/
Ukraine - http://sapphire.donetsk.ua/uz/uz.html
United Kingdom - http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/
  Northern Ireland Railways - http://www.nirailways.co.uk/
  Train Line - http://www.thetrainline.com/

=46or more links, see http://www.railfaneurope.net/

* Buses (coaches):

Eurolines - http://www.eurolines.com/
  Less comfortable than trains, but also cheaper. Worth considering if
  you're on a very tight budget.

* Other Useful Links:

Government Travel Advice:

Australia - http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/Advice/Index
Canada - http://voyage.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/
=46rance -=20
UK - http://www.fco.gov.uk/travel
USA - http://travel.state.gov/travel/tips/tips_1232.html
        ("Tips for Travelling Abroad")
        ("Background Notes" on many countries)
        ("Travel Warnings". These warnings are often considered somewhat
        paranoid by experienced travellers.)

Hostelling International - International Youth Hostel Federation

Steve Kropla - http://kropla.com/
  Information on using modems, telephones, electric appliances, etc.,
  in many countries.

Rec.travel Library - http://www.travel-library.com/

USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Travel Information -

V. To Do: Possible Additions

* Best ways to phone from Europe: calling card from telephone company
n one's own country, prepaid card from company in one's own country,
telephone card from country being visited, call-back service, etc.
Cheapest choice probably varies considerably by country. There's a list
for the UK at http://www.ourfavouritecompanies.com/Peak/ .