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May 1990                                                          
              ANALYTICAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING                            


                    Marilyn B. Peterson
                   Analytical Supervisor
           New Jersey Division of Criminal Justice
                    Trenton, New Jersey


                     R. Glen Ridgeway                         
                   Director of Training
             New York Organized Crime Task Force
                  White Plains, New York
     The ability to analyze is very important in law 
enforcement.  Every investigator uses analytical ability on the 
the most complex fraud and money laundering schemes.  Analytical 
ability is what makes a good investigator.                        

     This article provides a look at the philosophy, environment, 
and pitfalls of teaching intelligence analysis within law 
enforcement.  It explores curricula now available and the need to 
nstitution of professional standards for intelligence analysts,
ncluding specific training topics.

THE FIELD OF INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS                                

     Investigators have always used analysis while performing 
their jobs, but not with the disciplined procedures that 
characterize a professional analyst.  In most investigations, 
basis.  Yet, a systematic analytical approach requires adherence 
to accepted, fundamental principles and techniques, most of which 
are learned or assimilated over time.  The ability to develop a 
ntelligence analyst.

     The field of intelligence analysis has grown enormously in 
crimes, particularly in the area of drug enforcement, strategy 
a decade ago, a handful of law enforcement agencies employed 
trained analysts; now, analysts can be found in even small 
enforcement profession that it is taught to every recruit at the 
various training settings.                                        

     The Federal law enforcement community has influenced the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Drug Enforcement 
Administration (DEA), and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and 
Firearms (ATF) have even created a series of job titles and 
career paths for analysts.                                        

     The FBI National Academy Program offers instruction in 
ntelligence analysis to participants during their training at
the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia.  ATF encouraged and 
analysts, the International Association of Law Enforcement 
conferences enabling the various projects to exchange experiences 
and build on each agency's success.  Other Federal agencies 
employ analysts, as do State agencies such as the Florida 
Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and the Illinois State 

     Federally funded Regional Information Sharing System (RISS) 
nationwide, also played a significant role in promoting 
ntelligence analysis.  RISS projects created computerized
analytical software for specific types of analysis (1) and offered 
these services to its members.  Under this system, agencies could 
forward data to the appropriate project.  The data was then 
entered, analyzed, and compiled into a finished report. 
Additionally, some RISS projects taught analysis to member agency 
techniques to others.                                 
     Several agencies also developed analytical training in the 
Federal Government or the RISS projects.  While most of the 
analytical classes cover basic information, a few advanced 
courses address such areas as computer-aided analysis, complex 
financial case analysis, and strategic analysis.                  

     The success of intelligence analysis courses suggests that 
there is a market for analytical intelligence training.  However, 
the courses offered are basic and reflect little initiative in 
opted to modify the basic training wheel, rather than redesign 
t, mainly because of lack of time and expertise.  This means
that analytical training capabilities remain rudimentary and do 
not advance the science of intelligence analysis in law 

ANALYSIS IN ACADEMIA                                              

     All colleges and universities offer analytical courses, such 
as statistical, financial and market analysis, and most mandate  
a minimum number of analytical course credits within the degree 
analysis, and even fewer have courses in law enforcement 
analysis.  Even so, the law enforcement analytical courses that 
on how to analyze.  As a result, when law enforcement agencies 
look for analytical candidates, they generally look for people 

ANALYTICAL COURSE DEVELOPMENT                                     

     Developing any course curriculum is a time-consuming 
as a basis for course formation.  As a result, most instructors 
must begin from ground zero.  Therefore, the first step in 


     Within the intelligence field, definitions have long been a 
of analysis, there is rampant disagreement, (2) as can be expected.  


     When formulating an analysis course, step-by-step 
nstruction should be provided.  This reduces the procedure to
ts most basic components, increases the likelihood of
comprehension, and provides a basis for future reference.        


     Actual samples of analytical products are not only 
mpressive but are also informative.  Ideally, an intelligence
analysis course should include fictitious or sanitized examples 
of every method/product taught.                               

     People learn best by doing.  Considering that analytical 
concepts are hard to teach and difficult to learn, 
authentic-appearing case material should be used during course 
nstruction.  Many practical exercises can translate the concept
of analysis into the investigator's stock-in-trade  solving 

     There are four general pitfalls in teaching intelligence 
analysis.  They are:                                              

     *  Using someone else's material,                               

     *  Being too technical,                                         

     *  Not being able to respond to questions, and                  

     *  Creating training programs that are too specialized.         
     Each needs to be considered when teaching an analytical 
ntelligence course.

Using Someone Else's Material                                     

     This pitfall is perhaps the most dangerous, since there are 
borrowing another's material has become a common practice.        

     Yet, using another's course curriculum keeps individual 
experiences from being incorporated into the training, which 
nstructor from truthfully answering the question most often
asked in the analytical classroom, ``Why did (or didn't) you do 
t that way?''  If the ``it'' referenced is an example or answer
an instructor did not create, the instructor can either make up 
an answer or admit ignorance.  But, too many ``I don't know'' 
answers may have negative consequences.                       

Being Too Technical                                               

     Because intelligence analysis is a very technical field, it 
s important to explain the subject matter in the simplest terms
not direct the lecture to one or two technically oriented 
to cover certain concepts and techniques more than once.  What is 
mportant is that everyone thoroughly understands and comprehends
the topics covered.                                               

     The presentation should be designed for the audience at 
tendency to use details and speak abstractly.  However, all 
nstruction should be as simple as possible.  The goal is to have
the students learn intelligence analysis.                    

Responding to Questions                                           

     The nightmare of all instructors is not being able to 
to decrease the likelihood that this nightmare will occur. 
However, an instructor who teaches a course only a few times a 
year can forget to cover certain details.  To prevent this, 
materials should be thoroughly reviewed a few days before the 
class begins.                                           

Specialized Training                                              

     At present, a limited number of advanced analytical courses 
are offered in the United States because there is a limited 
audience for such training, making it not cost effective.  For 
the most part, those who take analytical courses are not 
analysts; they are more interested in an overview of the concepts 
and techniques, not in details.  In addition, structured courses 
for experienced analysts may only be offered a few times a year. 
Therefore, time spent in course development may never be recouped 
n terms of the number of persons taught, particularly on the
local or State level.                                             

     The answer might be in forming advanced classes through the 
cooperation of Federal agencies, programs such as RISS, or a 
national consortium of analytical experts.  This would allow more 
advanced classes to be available over a wider area  and  to  a  

THE FUTURE                                                        

     It is clear that analysis will continue as a necessary 
component of criminal investigation in the future.  It is also 
clear that computerization will not take the place of the 
analyst, but instead will create a greater demand for more 
complex analysis.  However, if analytical intelligence 
nstruction is to reach its potential, there are several areas
that must be addressed.  These include developmental support, the 
training of analytical instructors, the development of new models 
and curricula in computerized analysis, and emerging analytical 

Developmental Support                                             

     There is little support to rely on in the area of analytical 
training development.  Articles, chapters, books, or monographs 
exchange training manuals informally or permit one another to 
borrow teaching modules.  Unfortunately, there is no formal 
through a professional organization or agency.              

Training Analytical Instructors                                   

     Outside of one private company that trains its own faculty, 
there is no organization that educates analysts on how to become 
analytical instructors.  As a result, there are very few 
qualified analysis instructors in the United States generally 
available for teaching in multiagency settings.  One  solution 
may be to form an intelligence analysis faculty in order to teach 
others to become analytical instructors.                         

Developing New Models                                             

     New models for providing analytical training should be 
encouraged.  One particular model--definition, how-to steps, 
not at the more advanced level.  The case-long practex model, 
Training,'' (3) could be used in various scenarios, such as drugs 
and the infiltration of legitimate businesses.  However, other 
models also should be designed.                          

Computerized Analysis                                             

     The field of computerized analysis has opened new areas of 
expertise and potential courses.  Currently, classes are limited 
to database applications for toll records, event flow, or network 
analysis.  Artificial intelligence in which computerized data are 
flagged based on certain elements is a solid tool for targeting 
criminals and helping to predict criminal activity.  Agencies 

DEVELOPING STANDARDS                                              

     The International Association of Law Enforcement 
Accreditation Committee, first formed in Florida, was able to 
myriad of position classifications used for analysts.  Some 
analysts are sworn police personnel, others are civilian.  Some 
management-oriented strategic planners.                           

     Some analysts view their jobs merely as stepping stones to 
nvestigative work; others look at it as a step toward computer
than 3 or 4 years, and few receive advanced training, develop 
training, or write in the field.  In short, not all analysts are 
committed to analysis as a profession for the long term.  This 
lack of commitment helps explain the lack of advanced analysis 
and standards.  It also does little to foster the goal of IALEIA 
to promote high standards of professionalism in analysis.    


     This article has detailed the support, or the lack of 
nstruction.  As a result, hundreds of law enforcement agencies
more support.                                                     

     Adequate support for the use of analysis within law 
enforcement will only come through the education of managers, 
nvestigators, prosecutors, and analysts.  Unfortunately, a vast
majority of agencies in the United States still do not realize 

     Analysis is a subject worth exploring, but law enforcement 
teaching curricula and standard operating procedures.  To achieve 
this, each analyst must help to persuade the law enforcement 
community that professional analysis is necessary and vital to 
law enforcement's mission.  Only through standardization and the 
cultivation of dedicated analysts will analysis as a profession 


(1) There are six RISS projects--the Rocky Mountain 
Mid-States Organized Crime Information Center, the Regional 
Organized Crime Information Center, and the Middle 
Atlantic-Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network.     
(2) Marilyn Peterson Sommers, ``Law Enforcement Intelligence:  
A New Look,'' International Journal of Intelligence and 
Counterintelligence, vol. 1, No. 1, Fall, 1986.                   
(3) ``Advanced Analytical Training'' includes complex cases 
for which teams of analysts were required to do analytical