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REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES NAME archie

Found at: 0x1bi.net:70/textfiles/file?internet/archie.man

archie> manpage



ARCHIE(1L)        MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES         ARCHIE(1L)



NAME
     archie - Internet archive server listing service

SYNOPSIS
     archie

DESCRIPTION
     This manual page describes Version 3 of the  archie  system.
     This Internet information service allows the user to query a
     database containing a list of files which are  available  on
     hosts  connected  to  the Internet. Software located through
     this service can be obtained by means of ftp(1);  for  hosts
     with  access  to BITNET/NetNorth/EARN, it can be obtained by
     electronic mail through the Princeton bitftp  (1L)  service.
     Send mail to

                         bitftp@pucc.princeton.edu

     Other Internet users who are not directly connected may  use
     the services of various ftp-by-mail servers including

                         ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com

     Some archie systems track  archive  sites  globally,  others
     only  track  the  archive  sites in their country, region or
     continent in order  to  reduce  the  load  on  trans-oceanic
     links.  There are a number of archie hosts serving different
     continental user communities. The servers command will  list
     the most up-to-date information on archie servers worldwide.

     archie.au*                  Australia
     archie.edvz.uni-linz.ac.at* Austria
     archie.univie.ac.at*        Austria
     archie.uqam.ca*             Canada
     archie.funet.fi             Finland
     archie.th-darmstadt.de*     Germany
     archie.ac.il*               Israel
     archie.unipi.it*            Italy
     archie.wide.ad.jp           Japan
     archie.kr*                  Korea
     archie.sogang.ac.kr*        Korea
     archie.rediris.es*          Spain
     archie.luth.se*             Sweden
     archie.switch.ch*           Switzerland
     archie.ncu.edu.tw*          Taiwan
     archie.doc.ic.ac.uk*        United Kingdom
     archie.unl.edu              USA (NE)
     archie.internic.net*        USA (NJ)
     archie.rutgers.edu*         USA (NJ)
     archie.ans.net*             USA (NY)
     archie.sura.net*            USA (MD)
     Sites marked with an asterisk '*' run archie version 3.0



Sun Release 4.1     Last change: 12 Apr 1993                    1






ARCHIE(1L)        MISC. REFERENCE MANUAL PAGES         ARCHIE(1L)



     archie can be accessed interactively, via electronic mail or
     through archie client programs.


  Using the Interactive (telnet) Interface
     In order to use the interactive system you  should  use  the
     following procedure:

     1)   telnet to the archie system closest to you. Do not  use
          ftp for this, it will not work.

     2)   Login as user  archie  (no  capitals,  no  password  is
          required). The system should print a banner message and
          status report before presenting you  with  the  command
          prompt.

     3)   Type help for complete information on the system.

     For full details, refer to the section entitled ARCHIE  COM-
     MANDS which appears below.


  Using the Electronic Mail Interface
     In order to use the email interface, send requests to:

          archie@

     where  is one of the hosts listed  above,  or
     one  returned by the servers command.  Send the word help in
     a message  to  obtain  a  list  of  available  commands  and
     features.   This is a completely automated interface, acting
     without human intervention.

     For full details, refer to the section entitled ARCHIE  COM-
     MANDS which appears below.

  Using the archie clients
     The source code for a variety of archie client programs  can
     be  obtained  via  anonymous  ftp(1)  from any of the archie
     server  hosts  listed  above.  They  are   stored   in   the
     archie/clients   or  pub/archie/clients  directories.  These
     clients communicate via the Prospero distributed file system
     protocol  with  archie  servers, which perform the specified
     queries and return the results to the user. Currently  there
     are  command  line and X(1) clients available. These clients
     should run on most Unix platforms as well as  other  systems
     with  compatibility libraries. For more information on Pros-
     pero send your queries to info-prospero-request@isi.edu


  Communicating with the Database Administrators
     Mail to archie administrators at a particular archie  server
     should be sent to the address

          archie-admin@

     where  is one of the hosts listed above.

     To send mail to  the  implementors  of  the  archie  system,
     please send mail to

          archie-group@bunyip.com

     The archie server system is a product of Bunyip  Information
     Systems.

     Requests for additions to the set of hosts surveyed for  the
     database,  modifications  to  the Software Description Data-
     base, or other administrative matters, should be sent to:

          archie-admin@bunyip.com

ARCHIE COMMANDS
     In the archie system version 3 the telnet and email  clients
     accept  a  common  set  of commands. Additionally, there are
     specialized commands specfic to the  particular  interfaces.
     See  THE  INTERACTIVE INTERFACE and THE EMAIL INTERFACE sec-
     tions below for a list of these commands.

     Note that some archie server sites may disable some  of  the
     commands for reasons particular to their site.  As well some
     sites limit the number of  concurrent  interactive  (telnet)
     sessions to better utilize limited resources.

  Commands
     Arguments to commands shown  in  square  brackets  '[]'  are
     optional; all others are mandatory.

     find 

     prog 
          This command produces a list of files matching the pat-
          tern  .  The  may be interpreted as a
          simple substring, a case sensitive substring, an  exact
          string  or a regular expression, depending on the value
          of the search variable.  The output  normally  contains
          such information as the file name that was matched, the
          directory path leading to it, the  site  containing  it
          and  the time at which that site was last updated.  The
          format of  the  output  can  be  selected  through  the
          output format variable.  The results are sorted accord-
          ing to the value of the sortby variable, and  are  lim-
          ited in number by the maxhits variable.
          prog is identical to find.  It is included for backward
          compatibility with older versions of the system.

     help [ [] ...]
          Invokes the help system and presents help on the speci-
          fied  topic.   A  list of words is considered to be one
          topic, not a list of individual topics. Thus,

               help set maxhits

          requests help on the subtopic maxhits of topic set, not
          on  two  separate  topics.  After help is presented the
          user is placed in the help system at the deepest  level
          containing subtopics.

          For example, after typing

               help set maxhits

          and being shown the information for that topic the user
          is placed at the level set in the help hierarchy.

     list []
          Produce a list of sites whose contents are contained in
          the archie database. With no argument all the sites are
          listed. If given, the  argument is interpreted
          as  a  regular  expression  (See  "REGULAR EXPRESSIONS"
          below) against which to match site  names:  only  those
          names  matching  are  printed. The format of the output
          can be selected through the output format variable.

          Note that the numerical (IP) address associated with  a
          site  name  was  valid  at  the  last time the site was
          updated in  the  archie  database  but  may  have  been
          changed   subsequently.   Furthermore,  the  listed  IP
          address is the primary address as listed in the  Domain
          Name System (secondary addresses are not stored).

          Example:

               list

          lists all sites in the database, while

               list .de$

          lists all German sites.

     mail 
          Mail the result of the last command that produced  out-
          put (eg. find, whatis, list) to 
. This must be
          a vaid email address.

     manpage  [ roff | ascii ]
          Display  the  archie  manual  page  (this  file).   The
          optional  arguments  specify the format of the returned
          document. roff specifies  UNIX  troff(1)  format  while
          ascii  specifies plain, preformatted ASCII output. With
          no arguments it defaults to ascii.

     domains
          Asks the current server for  the  list  of  the  archie
          psuedo-domains  that it supports. See the entry for the
          match domain variable  below.  This  command  takes  no
          arguments.

          Example:

               domains

          requests the list of pseudo-domains  from  the  server.
          The result looks (in part) something like this:

          africa               Africa               za
          anzac                OZ & New Zealand     au:nz
          asia                 Asia                 kr:hk:sg:jp:cn:my:tw:in
          centralamerica       Central America      sv:gt:hn
          easteurope           Eastern Europe       bg:hu:pl:cs:ro:si:hr
          mideast              Middle East          eg:.il:kw:sa
          northamerica         North America        usa:ca:mx
          scandinavia          Scandinavia          no:dk:se:fi:ee:is
          southamerica         South American       ar:bo:br:cl:co:cr:cu:ec:pe
          usa                  United States        edu:com:mil:gov:us
          westeurope           Western Europe       westeurope1:westeurope2
          world                The World            world1:world2


          The first column gives the names of pseduo-domains sup-
          ported  by  the  server.  The second gives the "natural
          language" description  of  the  pseudo-domain  and  the
          third   column  is  the  actual  definitions  of  those
          domains. Thus here the "asia" domain  is  comprised  of
          the  Domain Name System country codes for Korea ("kr"),
          Hong Kong ("hk"), Singapore ("sg") etc.  Pseudo-domains
          may also be constructed from other pseudo-domains: thus
          one component  of  the  the  "northamerica"  domain  is
          itself constructed from the "usa" pseudo-domain.

     motd Re-display the "message of the day", which is  normally
          printed  when  the user initially logs on to the client
          (in the case of the interactive interface)  or  at  the
          start of the returned message (in the email interface).

     servers
          Display  a  list  of  all  publicly  accessible  archie
          servers  worldwide.  The  names  of the hosts, their IP
          addresses and geographical locations are listed.

     set  []
          Set the specified variable.  Variables are used to con-
          trol  various  aspects  of the way archie operates; the
          interpretation of  arguments,  the  format  of
          output  from  various  commands,  etc.  See the section
          below on variables for a description  of  each  one  as
          well as the entries for unset and show.

     show [ ...]
          Without any argument, display the  status  of  all  the
          user-settable  variables, including such information as
          its type (boolean, numeric, string), whether or not  it
          is  set  and  its current value (if its type requires a
          value).  Otherwise show  the  status  of  each  of  the
          specified arguments.

          Example:

               show maxhits

     site 
          This command is currently unimplemented under version 3
          of the archie system.

     unset variable
          Remove any value associated with  the  specified  vari-
          able.   This  may  cause  counter-intuitive behavior in
          some cases; for example, if maxhits is not  defined  by
          the  user,  the  find  command  will print the internal
          default number of  matches  rather  than  an  unlimited
          number of matches.

     version
          Print the current version of the client.

     whatis 
          Search the Software Description Database for the  given
          substring,  ignoring  case.   This database consists of
          names and short descriptions of many software packages,
          documents  (like  RFCs  and  educational material), and
          data files stored on the Internet.

          Example:

               whatis uucp

          in part gives as a result:

               findpath.sh             UUCP Pathfinder
               logfile-stats           UUCP LOGFILE analyzer
               mapstats                UUCP map  statistics  pro-
               gram

  Variable Types
     The behavior of archie can be modified by certain variables,
     the values of which may be changed using the set command, or
     removed entirely by the  unset  command.   There  are  three
     variable types:

     boolean        (Set or unset)

     numeric        (Integer within a defined range)

     string         (String of characters which may or may not be
                    restricted).

                    If the value of a string variable should con-
                    tain  leading  or  trailing  spaces  then  it
                    should be quoted.  Two ways of  quoting  text
                    are  to  surround  it  with  a pair of double
                    quotes (`"'), or to precede individual  char-
                    acters  with  a  backslash  (`\').  (A double
                    quote, or a backslash may itself be quoted by
                    preceding  it by a backslash.)  The resulting
                    value is that of the string with  the  quotes
                    stripped off.


  Numeric Variables
     maxhits
          Allow the find command to generate at most  the  speci-
          fied  number  of  matches  (permissible  range: 0-1000;
          default: 100).

          Example:

               set maxhits 100

          halts prog after 100 matches have been found in total.

     maxhitspm
          Across all the anonymous FTP archives on  the  Internet
          (and  even  on  one  single anonymous FTP archive) many
          files will have the same  name.  For  example,  if  you
          search for a very common filename like "README" you can
          get hundreds even thousands of matches. You  can  limit
          the  number  of  files  with the same name through this
          variable. For example,

               set maxhitspm 100

          tells the system only 100 files  with  the  same  name.
          Note  that the overall maximum number of files returned
          is still controlled with the 'maxhits' variable.

     maxmatch
          This variable will limit the number filenames returned.
          For  example, if maxmatch is set to 2 and you perform a
          substring search for the string "etc", and the database
          contains  filenames  "etca", "betc" and "detc" only the
          filenames "etca" and "betc" will be returned.  However,
          depending  on  the  values of maxhitspm and maxhits you
          will get back a  number  of  actual  files  with  those
          names. Example:

               set maxmatch 20



     max split size
          Approximate maximum size, in bytes, of  a  file  to  be
          mailed  to  the user.  Any output larger than this will
          be split in pieces of about this size.  This can be set
          by the user in the range 1024 to ~2Gb with a default of
          51200 bytes.

  String Variables
     compress
          The kind of data compression the user can specify  when
          mailing back output.  Currently allowed values are none
          and compress (standard UNIX compress(1),withadefaultof

     encode
          The type of  post-compression  encoding  the  user  can
          specify  when  mailing  back output.  Currently allowed
          values are none and uuencode, with a default  of  none.
          Note  that  this variable is ignored unless compression
          is enabled (via the compress) variable.

     language
          Allows the user to specify the language  in  which  the
          help,  etc.  is presented.  Currently the default value
          is english.

     mailto
          If the mail command is issued with no  arguments,  mail
          the output of the last command to the address specified
          by this string variable.  Initially  this  variable  is
          unset.

          Example:

               set mailto user@frobozz.com

          Conventional Internet addressing styles are understood.
          BITNET sites should use the convention:

               user@sitename.bitnet

          UUCP addresses can be specified as

               user@sitename.uucp

     match domain
          This variable allows users to  restrict  the  scope  of
          their  search  based  upon  the  Fully Qualified Domain
          Names (FQDN) of the anonymous FTP sites being searched.
          In  this  way,  the  user can specify a colon-separated
          list of domain names to which all returned  sites  must
          match.  Each  component  in  the  list  is taken as the
          rightmost part of the FQDN. For example,

               set match domain ca:internic.net:harvard.edu

          means that the names of all returned sites must end  in
          "ca"  (Canada),  "internic.net"  (sites in the Internet
          NIC) or "harvard.edu" (sites at Harvard University).

          While these are all real domain names, listing all pos-
          sible  combinations  for  say,  the  USA, would quickly
          become tedious (and if you think that is bad, try list-
          ing  all  the  countries on the Internet in Europe). To
          aid in this problem, the archie system has the  concept
          of  pseudo-domains  to  allow  users to use a shorthand
          notation when using this facility. These pseudo-domains
          are defined on a server-by-server basis and you can use
          the domains command to query your  current  server  for
          its list of predefined pseudo-domains.

          A pseudo-domain is a list  of  real  DNS  domain  names
          and/or a list of other pseudo-domains. For example, the
          archie administrator on the  server  could  define  the
          pseudo-domain

               "usa"

               to be

               "edu:mil:com:gov:us"

          If this definition existed  on  the  server,  then  you
          could

               set match domain usa

          which would be the same as saying

               set match domain edu:mil:com:gov:us

          In addition, the server administrator may define

               "northamerica"

               to be

               "usa:ca:mx"

          meaning that "northamerica" is composed of the  psuedo-
          domain  "usa"  and  the  real domains "ca" (Canada) and
          "mx" (Mexico). This process can be repeated for 20 lev-
          els  (more  than  sufficient for any naming scheme). By
          using  the  domains  command  you  can  determine  what
          pseudo-domains your current server supports.

     match path
          Sometimes you only would like your  search  (using  the
          find)  command  to look for files or directories with a
          certain set of names in their full path.

          For example, many  anonymous  FTP  site  administrators
          will  put software packages for the MacIntosh in a path
          containing the name "mac" or "macintosh". Another exam-
          ple  is  when  a document exists in several formats and
          you are only looking for the  PostScript  version.  You
          can guess that the file may end in ".ps" or it maybe in
          a directory called "ps" or "PostScript".

          This is usually guesswork, but is is useful to have the
          archie  system  only look for files or directories with
          particular components in their path name.

          This variable allows you to do this. The arguments  are
          a  colon-separated  list  of  possible  path  name com-
          ponents. In the last example above, saying

               set match path ps:postscript

          will restrict the search only to match those  files  or
          directories which have the strings "ps" or "postscript"
          in their path.

          The comparison is always  case-insensitive  (regardless
          of the value of the match variable) and there is a log-
          ical OR connecting the components  so  that  the  above
          statement  says:  "find  only  files which have 'ps' OR
          'postscript'  in  their  path".  If  either   component
          matches then the condition is satisfied.

     output format
          Affects  the  way  the  output  of  find  and  list  is
          displayed.  User settable, with valid values of machine
          (machine readable format), terse and  verbose,  with  a
          default of verbose.

     search
          The type of search done by the find (or prog)  command.
          User  settable  with a range of exact, regex, sub, sub-
          case, exact regex, exact sub and exact subcase  with  a
          default  of  sub.  (The exact  types cause it to try
          exact first, then fall back to type  if  no  matches
          are found).  The values have the following meanings:

          exact
               Exact match (the fastest method).  A match  occurs
               if  the  file  (or directory) name in the database
               corresponds exactly to  the  user-given  substring
               (including case).

               For example, this type of search could be used  to
               locate all files called xlock.tar.Z

          regex
               Allow user-specified (search) strings to take  the
               form of ed(1) regular expressions.

               Note: unless specifically anchored to  the  begin-
               ning  (with  ^)  or  end (with $) of a line, ed(1)
               regular  expressions  (effectively)  have   ``.*''
               prepended  and  appended to them.  For example, it
               is not necessary to type

                    find .*xnlock.*

               because

                    find xnlock

               suffices.  In this instance, the  regex  match  is
               equivalent a simple substring match.  Those unfam-
               iliar with regular expressions should refer to the
               section entitled REGULAR EXPRESSIONS which appears
               below.

          sub  Substring (case insensitive).  A match  occurs  if
               the  file (or directory) name in the database con-
               tains the user-given substring, without regard  to
               case.

               Example:

               The pattern:
                    is

               matches any of the following:

                    islington
                    this
                    poison

          subcase
               Substring (case sensitive).  As above, but  taking
               case as significant.

               Example:

               The pattern:

                    TeX

               will match:

                    LaTeX

               but neither of the following:

                    Latex
                    TExTroff

     server
          the Prospero server to which the client  connects  when
          find or list commands are invoked.  User settable, with
          a default value of localhost.

     sortby
          Set the method of sorting to be applied to output  from
          the  find command.  Typing the keyboard interrupt char-
          acter (generally Cntl-C on UNIX hosts) aborts a search.
          Unlike  previous versions of the archie system, version
          3 does not allow partial results.  The output phase may
          be aborted by typing the abort character a second time.
          The  five  permitted  methods  (and  their   associated
          reverse orders) are:

          none Unsorted (default; no reverse order, though  rnone
               is accepted)

          filename
               Sort  files/directories  by  name,  using  lexical
               order (reverse order: rfilename)

          hostname
               Sort on the archive  hostname,  in  lexical  order
               (reverse order: rhostname)

          size Sort  by  size,  largest  files/directories  first
               (reverse order: rsize)

          time Sort by modification time, with  the  most  recent
               file/directory names first (reverse order: rtime)

THE INTERACTIVE (TELNET) INTERFACE
     The interactive interface accepts the following commands and
     variables in addtion to those listed above.

  Commands
     stty [[
          This command allows the user to change the  interpreta-
          tion  of  specified characters, in order to match their
          particular terminal type.  At the moment only erase  is
          recognized  as an 
          a control character and may be specified as a  pair  of
          characters  (e.g. control-h as the pair '^' followed by
          'h'), the character itself (literal), or  as  a  quoted
          pair or literal.

          Without any arguments the command displays the  current
          values of the recognized options.

     mail [
]
          The output of the previous successful command (i.e.  an
          invocation  of  find, list or whatis that produced out-
          put)  is  mailed  to  the  specified  electronic   mail
          address.  If  no 
is given the contents of the
          mailto variable are used. If this variable is  not  set
          then  an  error occurs, and nothing is mailed, although
          the output is still available to be mailed.

          Example:

               mail user1@hello.edu

          Conventional Internet addressing styles are understood.
          BITNET sites should use the convention:

               user@sitename.bitnet

          UUCP addresses can be specified as

               user@sitename.uucp

     pager
          This command is included only for backward  compatibil-
          ity.   It has the same effect as set pager.  Its use is
          discouraged and it will be removed in a future release.

     nopager
          This command is included only for backward  compatibil-
          ity.   It  has the same effect as unset pager.  Its use
          is discouraged and it  will  be  removed  in  a  future
          release.

  Variables
     autologout
          Set the length of idle time (in minutes) allowed before
          automatic  logout  (permissible  range: 1-300; default:
          60).

          Example:

               set autologout 45

          logs the user out after 45 minutes of idle time.

     pager
          Filter all output through the default  pager  (default:
          unset).   When using the pager you may also want to set
          the term variable to your terminal type (see term vari-
          able).

          Example:

               set pager

     status
          When set this variable will cause the system to  report
          the  position  in  the  queue  of  your  request on the
          server. In addition, it will display the estimated time
          to  completion  of your request. This estimate is based
          in an average of the amount of  times  similar  queries
          have  taken  in  the past several minutes. The variable
          also controls the display of  a  "spinner"  during  the
          database  search,  which indicates that we are awaiting
          results from the Prospero server. Set by default.

     term Specify the type of terminal in  use  (and  optionally,
          its  size  in  rows  and columns).  This information is
          used by the pager.

          The usage is:

               set term  [<#rows> [<#columns>]]

          The terminal type is mandatory, but the number of  rows
          and  columns  is optional; specify either rows only, or
          both rows and columns (default: 24 rows,  80  columns).
          The default value for this variable is dumb. However it
          may be set automatically through  the  telnet  protocol
          negotiation.
          Examples:

               set term vt100
               set term xterm 60
               set term xterm 24 100

THE EMAIL INTERFACE
     The archie email interface currently accepts  the  following
     commands in addition to those listed in the COMMANDS section
     above.

     path 
is an alias for

          set mailto 

     quit Ignore any further lines past this point in  the  mail.
          This  is  generally  not  needed,  but  can  be used to
          prevent the system from interpreting signatures etc. as
          archie commands.

     The Subject: line in incoming mail is  processed  as  if  it
     were part of the main message body.

     A message not containing a valid request will be treated  as
     a help request.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
     Regular expressions follow the conventions of the ed(1) com-
     mand,  allowing sophisticated pattern matching.  In the fol-
     lowing discussion, the string containing a  regular  expres-
     sion  will be called the ``pattern'', and the string against
     which  it  is  to  be  matched  is  called  the  ``reference
     string''.  Regular expressions imbue certain characters with
     special meaning, providing a  quoting  mechanism  to  remove
     this special meaning when required.

     The rules governing regular expression are:

     c    A  character  c  matches  itself  unless  it  has  been
          assigned  a special meaning as listed below.  A special
          character loses its special meaning  when  preceded  by
          the  character  '\'.  This does not apply to '{', which
          is non-special until it is so treated.  Thus,  although
          '*'  normally  has  special  meaning,  the  string '\*'
          matches itself.

          Example:

          The pattern

               acdef

          matches any of the following:

               s83acdeffff
               acdefsecs
               acdefsecs

          but neither of the following:

               accdef
               aacde1f

          Example:

          Normally the characters '*'  and '$' are  special,  but
          the pattern

               a\*bse\$

          acts as above.  Any reference string containing:

               a*bse$

          as a substring will be flagged as a match.

     .    A period (known as a wildcard  character)  matches  any
          character except the newline character.

          Example:

          The pattern

               ....

          will match any 4 characters in  the  reference  string,
          except a newline character.

     ^    A caret (^) appearing at the  beginning  of  a  pattern
          requires  that the reference string must start with the
          specified pattern (an escaped caret, or a caret appear-
          ing  elsewhere  in  the  pattern,  is treated as a non-
          special character).

          Example:

          The pattern

               ^efghi

          The pattern will match  only  those  reference  strings
          starting  with efghi; thus, it will match either of the
          following:

               efghi
               efghijlk

          but not:

               abcefghi

     $    A dollar sign ($) appearing at the  end  of  a  pattern
          requires that the pattern appear at the end of a refer-
          ence string (an escaped dollar sign, or a  dollar  sign
          appearing  elsewhere,  is  treated as a regular charac-
          ter).

          Example:

          The pattern

               efghi$

          Will match either of the following:

               efghi abcdefghi

          but not:

               efghijkl

     [string]
          Match any single character within  the  brackets.   The
          caret  (^)  has  a  special  meaning if it is the first
          character in the series: the  pattern  will  match  any
          character other than one in the list.

          Example:

          The pattern

               [^abc]

          Will match any character except one of:

               a
               b
               c

          To match a right bracket (]) in the list, put it first,
          as in:

               []ab01]

          A caret appearing anywhere but the in first position is
          treated as a regular character.
          The minus (-) character is special within square brack-
          ets.   It is used to define a range of ASCII characters
          to be matched.  For example, the pattern:

               [a-z]

          matches any lower case letter.  The minus can  be  made
          non-special  by  placing  it  first  or last within the
          square brackets.  The characters '$', '*' and  '.'  are
          not special within square brackets.

          Example:

          The pattern

               [ab01]

          matches a single occurrence of  a  character  from  the
          set:

               a
               b
               0
               1

          Example:

          The pattern

               [^ab01]

          will match any single character other than one from the
          set:

               a
               b
               0
               1

          Example :

          The pattern

               [a0-9b]

          matches one of the characters:

               a
               b

          or a digit between 0 and 9, inclusive.
          Example :

          The pattern

               [^a0-9b.$]

          matches any single character which is not in the set:

               a
               b
               .
               $

          or a digit between 0 and 9, inclusive.

     *    Match  zero  or  more  occurrences  of  an  immediately
          preceding regular expression.

          Example:

          The pattern

               a*

          matches zero or more occurrences of the character:

               a

          Example:

          The pattern

               [A-Z]*

          matches zero or more  occurrences  of  the  upper  case
          alphabet.

     \{m\}
          Match exactly m  occurrences  of  a  preceding  regular
          expression, where m is a non-negative integer between 0
          and 255 (inclusive).

          Example:

          The pattern

               ab\{3\}

          matches any substring in the reference string  consist-
          ing  of the character `a' followed by exactly three `b'
          characters.

     \{m,\}
          Match at least m occurrences of the  preceding  regular
          expression.

          Example:

          The pattern

               ab\{3,\}

          matches any substring in the reference  string  of  the
          character  `a'  followed  by at least three `b' charac-
          ters.

     \{m,n\}
          Match between m and n occurrences of the preceding reg-
          ular  expression  (where  n  is  a non-negative integer
          between 0 and 255, and n>m).

          Example:

          The pattern

               ab\{3,5\}

          matches any substring in the reference string  consist-
          ing of the character `a' followed by at least three but
          at most five `b' characters.

  Tips for Using Regular Expressions
     1)   When matching a substring it is not  necessary  to  use
          the  wildcard character to match the part of the refer-
          ence string preceding and following the substring.

          Example:

          The pattern

               abcd

          will match any reference string  containing  this  pat-
          tern.  It is not necessary to use

               .*abcd.*

          as the pattern.

     2)   In order to constrain a pattern to the entire reference
          pattern, use the construction:

               ^pattern$

     3)   The '[]' operator provides an easy mechanism to  obtain
          case insensitivity.  For example, to match the word:

               hello

          regardless of case, use the pattern:

               [Hh][Ee][Ll][Ll][Oo]

THE ARCHIE DATABASE
     The archie database subsystem maintains a list of about  900
     Internet anonymous ftp(1) archive sites of approximately 2.1
     million   files   containing   170   Gigabytes   (that   is,
     170,000,000,000 bytes) of information.  The current database
     requires about 250 MB of disk storage.

SEE ALSO
     bitftp (1L), ftp(1), telnet(1), archie(1), xarchie(1)

AUTHORS
     Bunyip   Information   Systems   Inc.,    Montreal    Canada
     (info@bunyip.com).
     Original manual page by R. P. C.  Rodgers,  UCSF  School  of
     Pharmacy,      San      Francisco,      California     94143
     (rodgers@maxwell.mmwb.ucsf.edu),   Nelson   H.   F.    Beebe
     (beebe@math.utah.edu), and Alan Emtage (bajan@bunyip.com).
archie> 


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