The PC Hacking FAQ Version

Found at: 0x1bi.net:70/textfiles/file?hacking/MICROSOFT/pchack.txt

                       The PC Hacking FAQ

                      Version 2.0 7/10/96

           Written By Olcay Cirit, 
DISCLAIMER: The author of  this  text  disclaims  all  liability 
whatsoever  regarding  the use and/or misuse of  the  techniques
outlined  here  or any damages incurred directly  or  indirectly

                       Table of Contents
                  X. Introduction
                  1. Hardware and Firmware
                      a. The BIOS
                           Resetting the CMOS
                      b. Floppy Locks
                           Picking Them
                           Buying them
                      c. Last Resorts
                           Hard Disk Extraction
                  2. DOS, Windows, and Netware
                      a. Getting access to DOS
                           Boot from a floppy disk
                           Bypass startup files
                           Bypass DriveSpace
                           Break out of Autoexec.bat
                      b. Getting to DOS from Windows
                           Password Protection
                              Windows Login
                              Third-Party Passwords
                           Windows-Based Security
                              DOS Through OLE
                              DOS Using Write 
                              DOS Using Word
                              DOS through MODE
                              DOS through Windows Login
                      c. Getting Past Netware
                           Common Account Names
                           Resetting Netware
                  3. Building a SECURE system
                      a. Understanding the Issues
                           Potential "Hackers"
                           Physical Security
                           Software Security


X. Introduction

This FAQ describes how to break-in to a PC (IBM-Compatible) 
from the outside in, and how to bypass some common software-based
security measures. The last section details how to secure your
PC against most of such attacks.

If you would like to receive updates to this FAQ as soon as
they come out, send me a message (olcay@libtech.com) and ask
to be added to the mailing list.

Contributors to this FAQ: 

        KORO the Great  ksahin@scruznet.com
        Neil Chou       Neil_Chou@ilanet.org
        John Lundgren   jlundgre@deltanet.com
        Bob             rsh@inforamp.net
        Scorpion        favata@epix.net

Special Thanks to those really cool Netware Hackers! [Part 2c 
is based on parts of the Netware Hacking FAQ]               

Why did I write this? Because there were just so many questions 
on alt.2600 concerning 'How do I get past XXXXX security?' that 
I got tired of answering each one individually. I'm also shocked
at the fact that some people consider Windows 95/DOS to be
secure. Expect to see this FAQ expand as I find more bugs and
holes in security software. 

Many of these solutions assume you have physical access to the 
PC. For example, you can't extract the hard disk or reset the 
CMOS over a network, but you can do it if you have access to the 

This FAQ was NOT written to help computer thieves, but rather to 
increase awareness of backdoors and inefficiencies in security 
programs. Another thing is 'the doofus factor': If you should 
accidentally lock yourself out of your computer, you might find
this FAQ to be a great help. I do *not* condone screwing up other
people's computers.

I would like to note that few of these tricks are new. I simply 
rounded up everything that I could find and what I could glean 
from personal experience into an organized file.

If you have any questions or comments, feel free to contact me.

        Have Fun,

        Olcay Cirit, olcay@libtech.com
        a.k.a, Deep Thought


1. Hardware and Firmware

1a. The BIOS

The BIOS, short for Basic Input/Output Services, is the control 
program of the PC. It is responsible for starting up your computer, 
transferring control of the system to the operating system, and 
for handling other low-level functions, such as disk access.

NOTE that the BIOS is not a software program, insofar as it is
not purged from memory when you turn off the computer. It's 
firmware, meaning it is permanently and unchangeably stored in
the machine. FLASH BIOS Systems, such as those from Phoenix and
AMI, allow you update the BIOS through software, but that's
another FAQ.

A convenient little feature that most BIOS manufacturers include
is a startup password. This prevents access to the system until
you enter the correct password. 

If you can get access to the system after the password has been
entered, then there is a software-based BIOS password extractor
available from:


Resetting the CMOS
There is only one other way to get past the BIOS password. 
It involves discharging the static memory (CMOS) used to store the 
password and other system information. Once it is discharged, 
however, you have to reset all the system settings by hand.

****Follow these steps:

         1. Start up the computer
                a. If the system allows it, enter the Setup Screen
                        (Usually by pressing F1, DEL or INS during 
                        the memory check)
                b. Record all the Setup Information. Double Check.
         2. Turn off the computer
         3. Remove the casing, and put the computer on the ground in
                such a way that you can see and access the side of 
                the motherboard with the processor on it.
         4. Look at the motherboard
                a. If you can see a round, disc-like battery, then
                        remove it, and let the computer sit without 
                        the battery for 15-30 minutes. Put the battery 
                        back in.
                b. If you have access to the circuit diagrams for the
                        motherboard, look in there for the password or
                        CMOS jumper. Flip it on and off.
                c. Look for a blue, soldered-in battery with a jumper
                        running off of it. This jumper is for connecting
                        an external battery. Pull it out for 15-30 min. 
                        to reset the CMOS.
         5. Replace the computer casing.
         6. Enter the Setup Screen, and set the Setup Information
                back to the original values that you (hopefully)

If you were unable to record the setup info, then you'll just have 
to set it up manually. Some newer Plug & Play BIOSes have an 
autodetect feature that automatically sets-up the hard disk and 
other items.

Again, I would like to mention that there are numerous password
extractors available for free off the internet and on BBSes. Try 
those first: they are much cleaner and easier-to-use.


1b. Floppy Locks

Floppy Locks are generally cheap plastic inserts that hook on 
to the inside of the drive and lock it, thereby preventing you from
using the floppy drive. The locks used are usually those little
swivel locks used in computer casings to lock the keyboard.

There ARE some very secure locks, with *unique* keys. Such locks
are not sold at your local computer store, and must be obtained
directly from a factory in Nice, France (didn't get the name,
though.). There is a distributor in Canada by the name of "Kappa

If the lock is of the swivel type, you can either pick it, or
buy a key (they're all the same).

To pick it, you'll need a *thin* flathead screwdriver
or a paperclip. To pick the lock, take the paperclip and insert it 
into the little notch on the inside of the swivel lock. Now, pull to 
the opposite side of the lock until the swivel is in the unlocked 

If you choose to buy a key, you can:

        A. Go to your local computer service center, and buy
                one of these keys. (Very cheap. Often less than
        B. Buy the same brand of floppy lock, and use the key
                that comes with it.


1c. Last Resorts

If you are *REALLY* desperate to access this PC, then the following 
*might* work:

        1. Remove the PC Casing
        2. Extract the hard disk (By unscrewing and disconnecting)
        3. Transfer it to another computer. (Make sure that it is
                NOT set as the boot drive.)
        4. Start up this computer, and access the
                hard disk from there.

This will probably not work if an encrypted file system is in
use. The only way to access such disks is to enter the password, 
or figure out a way to decrypt it, so if you forget your password,
you're hosed. :(


2. DOS, Windows, and Netware

2a. Getting access to DOS

Some systems, are set up to boot directly to some sort of
shell/security program, like Windows, or Windows 95. If you
want to get access to a DOS prompt, you have some choices:

        A. Boot from a floppy disk
        B. Bypass startup files
        C. Bypassing DriveSpace
        D. Break out of Autoexec.bat

***Booting from a floppy requires you to create a system disk. 
You can do this using the DOS command FORMAT A: /S which will 
format a disk and place system files on it. Also, the Windows 
format (In File Manager or Explorer) has an option allowing you 
to create a system floppy.

Before you create a system disk, you must determine which
floppy drive is used to boot. If the system has both a
1.2MB (5.25") Floppy Drive and a 1.44MB (3.5") Drive, it is likely
that the boot drive is the 1.2 MB floppy drive. If the computer
has only one floppy drive, it is quite safe to assume that it is
the boot drive.

However, if you are unsure as to which drive is the boot drive,
you can either find out by entering System Setup (as described
in section 1) or by observing which floppy drive is read right
before the operating system loads.

If the system is set to boot only from the hard disk, then you
can refer to Section 1 on how to reset the CMOS.

Once you have a system disk, you place it in the floppy drive,
and turn on or reset the computer. If you have done everything
right, the computer will boot from the floppy drive and you will
have access to a DOS prompt.

This technique, of course, can be prevented through the use of a
floppy lock, and by setting the BIOS to boot only from the hard

***Bypassing startup files is quite simple, but only works on 
versions of DOS 6.0 or better and Windows 95. When you turn on 
the computer and you see the text:

        Starting MS-DOS ...

        Starting PC-DOS ...

        Starting Windows 95 ...

Press and hold the SHIFT or F5 key IMMEDIATELY. This will bypass 
the startup files (CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT) as long as the 
system administrator has not disabled this feature.

Additionally, you can press and hold F8 when the startup 
text shows to enter the Boot menu. This lets you selectively
disable certain commands, or bypass the startup files totally,
among other things.

***Bypassing DriveSpace works if compression software such as
DriveSpace or DoubleSpace has been installed. If so, when
the startup text displays, press and hold Ctrl+F5 or Ctrl+F8.
This will load the system without loading the compression
driver, which means you can't access the files on disk. 

HOWEVER, you *can* decompress the disk (DriveSpace only), as
long as you have sufficient disk space or enough floppies. 

If all else fails, you can format it or take it to a Specialized
Data Recovery service. They can probably recover the files by
moving them to a larger hard disk and decompressing. 

***Breaking out of AUTOEXEC.BAT is rather simple also. When the 
computer starts up and the operating system starts loading, press 
Ctrl+Break (Or Ctrl+C) repeatedly. When the AUTOEXEC.BAT executes, 
this will terminate it and drop you to DOS. This will work unless
the keyboard has been disabled, or is inactive during 
initialization (Drivers can be loaded in CONFIG.SYS which
temporarily disable the keyboard, and then re-enable it with a
command at the end of AUTOEXEC.BAT)


2b. Getting to DOS from Windows

If the above tactics fail, and the machine automatically loads
Windows, then you still have a very good chance of getting to DOS. 
Since Windows by default gives you free access to DOS, there are 
special security programs made specifically to prevent the user 
from accessing it, among other things. Most of these programs
can be bypassed.

Password Protection
If when Windows starts up you are presented with yet another 
password dialog box, analyze the situation:

Windows Login
If this is the Primary Windows Login or a Network login,
then you can get past it by pressing the Cancel button (No
Joke!) to log on as the Default user. This is because the Login
information is used primarily for desktop preferences and
remote file sharing.

Login passwords are stored in .PWL files in the Windows
directory. You can reset all accounts to no password by
using the .PWL renaming technique described below. 

The filename of the .PWL file corresponds to the login name of
that user. For example, Olcay.pwl contains the encrypted 
passwords for the account "Olcay".

The password protection in Windows 95 uses a much stronger
algorithm, but you can still bypass it by *carefully* moving 
or renaming all .PWL files in the C:\Windows directory. The
password filenames are also stored in the SYSTEM.INI file.

So, to disable passwords:

        CD \WINDOWS
        REN *.PWL *.PW_

Similarly, to re-enable passwords:

        CD \WINDOWS
        REN *.PW_ *.PWL

Third-Party Password
If this is a third-party security program, such as the one 
built-in to After Dark, try pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del when the 
dialog is presented to you. Most security programs go out of 
their way to be secure, and Windows 3.1 interprets this as not
responding to the system, and thus will allow you close it.
Windows 95 pops up a neat little dialog box that lets you
terminate any running application. How convenient. :) Once you 
subvert this, you can prevent it from bothering you again by 
editing the LOAD= and RUN= sections in C:\WINDOWS\WIN.INI.

The password protection built-in to the Windows 3.1 
screensavers is extremely weak. You can bypass it by editing 
CONTROL.INI and searching for the Password field. Delete the 
junk that appears after the equal sign (This is an encrypted 

To disable Windows 95 passwords, right-click on the desktop
and select Properties, choose the Screen Saver tab, and uncheck
"Password protected".

Windows-Based Security
If Windows starts up, and Program Manager loads, but the File 
menu is disabled, and access to DOS has been cut off, or some 
other oppressive security measures are in place, fear not. There 
are ways around such programs, as shall be explained below:

DOS through OLE
OLE, for Object Linking and Embedding, was hailed as a great advance
in the Windows Operating System by letting you embed or link objects
(this includes Executables) in documents.

Scorpion pointed out that Object Packager, which lets you package
embedded files with icons, could be used to access DOS (or run any
program) from most OLE-enabled applications (Like Write, WordPad,
Word, etc.) Based on this information, I found a similar hole that
doesn't require Object Packager but still exploits OLE. Both of
these work in Windows 3.x and up.

Using Object Packager:

        1. Start up Write or WordPad
        2. Select "Object" from the "Insert" menu
                a. The location of the Insert Object command
                        may vary. Look Around.
        3. Choose Package from the list, and click OK
        4. Select "Import" from the "File" menu
        5. Enter C:\COMMAND.COM, and select OK
        6. Select "Update" Under the "File" menu
        7. Go back to your document, and double click
                on the COMMAND.COM icon

Using Insert:

        1. Start up Write or WordPad
        2. Select "Object" from the "Insert" menu
                a. Again, the location of the Insert Object command
                        may vary. Look Around.
        3. Select "Create from File"
        4. Enter C:\COMMAND.COM as the filename
        5. Click OK, go back to your document, and double click
                on the COMMAND.COM icon

DOS through Write
This works by saving COMMAND.COM, the DOS executable, over WINHELP.EXE,
the Windows Help program. Unfortunately, this tactic will not work with
Windows 95. WordPad, the Word Processing Applet that comes with Windows
95, prevents the user from loading executable files.

        1. Go into Accessories, and start up Write (*NOT* NOTEPAD!!)
        2. Open C:\COMMAND.COM
        3. A dialog box will pop up. Select "NO CONVERSION"
        4. Select Save As...
        5. Save it as C:\WINDOWS\WINHELP.EXE
        6. If it asks if you want to overwrite WINHELP.EXE, choose
        7. Press F1. Normally, this loads Windows Help, but now it
                will create a DOS prompt window.

DOS through Word
Microsoft Word versions 6.0 and above have a built-in macro
language called WordBasic. This example works by instructing
WordBasic to open up a DOS window.

Most of the Macro languages of popular applications let you
do something similar to this technique. Look around in the
online help files.

        1. If Microsoft Word is installed, start it up.
        2. From the Tools Menu, select Macro.
        3. Type in a Macro name, and click "Create"
        4. When the Macro window comes up, type in one of the
                following depending on which Windows you are using:

                  For Windows 3.1: Shell Environ$("COMSPEC") 
                  For Windows  95: Shell Environ$("COMMAND") 
                  For Windows  NT: Shell Environ$("CMD")

                If all else fails: Shell "C:\COMMAND.COM"

        5. Run the macro by pressing the little play button on the
                macro toolbar. This will launch a DOS prompt.

DOS through MODE
When Windows 95 Shuts Down and shows that dumb graphic, it's
really just sitting on top of DOS. You can actually issue DOS
commands (although the graphic will cover them) on the system 
after shutdown!!!

A simple way to do this is to type:


After the shutdown graphic shows. However, the text will be in 
40-column mode, which is hard to read, and incompatible with 
some programs.

If you want to get a nice, clean DOS prompt, you can type:

        MODE CO80

This will reset the screen display to the normal (80-column, 
16 color) DOS display mode.

*MOST* Windows Security programs are based on a VxD (Virtual Device),
which gives them unprecented power over the system while Windows
is running. After shutdown, all Windows-based programs will be
unloaded, leaving you free to explore using DOS.

For some unknown reason, this doesn't seem to work on some systems.

DOS through Windows Login
When Windows 95 Starts up, some systems are set up to show
a Windows/Network Login dialog box. You can press either


Which will let you Shut down the system (and apply the DOS
THROUGH MODE technique), End any running tasks, etc. Or:


Which, since the taskbar hasn't loaded, will launch Task 
Manager. From this window you can end tasks, run programs,
and shutdown the system (again, the DOS THROUGH MODE technique
is applicable here). *All* programs are accessible from the run 
menu, so you can run C:\COMMAND.COM to get access to DOS.


2c. Getting past NetWare

This section is based on excerpts from the Netware Hacking FAQ.
Although Netware has met a general decline in use over the years,
I still thought it would be proper to include this.

Common Account Names
Novell Netware has the following default accounts: SUPERVISOR, GUEST, 
and Netware 4.x has ADMIN and USER_TEMPLATE as well. All of these have 
no password set. Don't be a dummy, password protect SUPERVISOR and
ADMIN immediately. Below is a listing of common default and built-in
accounts that might be in your best interest to secure.

Account         Purpose
-------         ---------------------------------------------------
POST            Attaching to a second server for email

PRINT           Attaching to a second server for printing

ROUTER          Attaching an email router to the server

BACKUP          May have password/station restrictions (see below), 
WANGTEK         used for backing up the server to a tape unit
                attached to the workstation. For complete backups, 
                Supervisor equivalence is required.

TEST            A test user account for temp use

ARCHIVIST       Palindrome default account for backup

CHEY_ARCHSVR    An account for Arcserve to login to the server from    
                from the console for tape backup. Version 5.01g's
                password was WONDERLAND.

GATEWAY         Attaching a gateway machine to the server

FAX             Attaching a dedicated fax modem unit to the network

WINDOWS_PASSTHRU Although not required, per the Microsoft Win95
                Resource Kit, Ch. 9 pg. 292 and Ch. 11 pg. 401 you
                need this for resource sharing without a password.

Resetting Netware
When NetWare is first installed, the account SUPERVISOR and GUEST
are left unprotected, that is, with no password. SUPERVISOR has
free run of the system. You can do anything you want.

But how can you make the server think it has just been installed 
without actually reinstalling the server and losing all data on 
the disk? Simple. You just delete the files that contain the 
security system! 

In Netware 2.x, all security information is stored in two files 
(NET$BIND.SYS and NET$BVAL.SYS). Netware 3.x stores that information 
in three files (NET$OBJ.SYS, NET$VAL.SYS and NET$PROP.SYS). The all 
new Netware 4.x system stores all login names and passwords in five 
and UNINSTAL.NDS [This last file may not be there, don't worry]).

Although Novell did a very good job encrypting passwords, they left all 
directory information easy to find and change if you can access the 
server's disk directly, using common utilities like Norton's Disk Edit. 

Using this utility as an example, I'll give a step-by-step procedure 
to make these files vanish. All you need is a bootable DOS disk,  
Norton Utilities' Emergency Disk containing the DiskEdit program and 
some time near the server.

1. Boot the server and go to the DOS prompt. To do this, just let the 
   network boot normally and then use the DOWN and EXIT commands. This 
   procedure does not work on old Netware 2.x servers and in some 
   installations where DOS has been removed from memory. In those cases, 
   you'll have to use a DOS bootable disk.

2. Run Norton's DiskEdit utility from drive A:

3. Select "Tools" in the main menu and then select "Configuration". 
   At the configuration window, uncheck the "Read-Only" checkbox. And 
   be very careful with everything you type after this point.

4. Select "Object" and then "Drive". At the window, select the C: drive 
   and make sure you check the button "physical drive". After that, 
   you'll be looking at your physical disk and you be able to see 
   (and change) everything on it.

5. Select "Tools" and then "Find". Here, you'll enter the name of the 
   file you are trying to find. Use "NET$BIND" for Netware 2, 
   "NET$PROP.SYS" for Netware 3 and "PARTITIO.NDS" for Netware 4. It is 
   possible that you find these strings in a place that is not the 
   Netware directory. If the file names are not all near each other and 
   proportionaly separated by some unreadable codes (at least 32 bytes
   between them), then you it's not the place we are looking for. In 
   that case, you'll have to keep searching by selecting "Tools" and 
   then "Find again". [In Netware 3.x, you can change all occurences of 
   the bindery files and it should still work okay])

6. You found the directory and you are ready to change it. Instead of 
   deleting the files, you'll be renaming them. This will avoid problems 
   with the directory structure (like lost FAT chains). Just type "OLD" 
   over the existing "SYS" or "NDS" extension. Be extremely careful and 
   don't change anything else.

7. Select "Tools" and then "Find again". Since Netware store the 
   directory information in two different places, you have to find the 
   other copy and change it the same way. This will again prevent 
   directory structure problems.

8. Exit Norton Disk Edit and boot the server again. If you're running 
   Netware 2 or 3, your server would be already accessible. Just go to
   any station and log in  as user Supervisor. No password will be asked. 
   If you're running Netware 4, there is one last step.

9. Load Netware 4 install utility (just type LOAD INSTALL at the console 
   prompt) and select the options to install the Directory Services. You 
   be prompted for the Admin password while doing this. After that, you 
   may go to any station and log in as user Admin, using the password 
   that you have selected.

**NOTE: If Disk Edit is unavailable, any Disk Editing utility with 
 searching capabilities will suffice.


3. Building a SECURE System

3a. Understanding the Issues

Potential "Hackers"
After reading this FAQ, you've probably revised your idea of a
secure PC quite a bit. Truth be told, IBM didn't design the Personal 
Computer with security in mind. Back in 1980, their main objective was 
to get _something_ to market before Apple gobbled up all the market 

After awhile, security programs started to emerge that attempted
to bridge this gap. These were quite popular, and were put into use
by many companies to prevent 'curious' employees from messing with
the computers.

However, ways to bypass these security programs were quickly found.
As long as computers are designed for convenience, and with humans
in mind, this will almost always happen.

So, who are potential "Hackers"? The answer is: Anyone. Experienced
users especially, but even newbies sometimes find weak spots. This
is not to say that everyone *is* a "hacker". (Note that I use quotes 
because I don't believe in the popular usage of the term "Hacker". 
The media is out of control: their usage of the word has conflated 
Computer Gurus with Criminals in the minds of the people.)

As always, prevention is the best medicine. The following sections
deal with how to secure your system, both through physical and
software-based means.

Physical Security
In the old days, back when computers filled multiple rooms, the 
security of a system was basically all physical: Locks, security
guards, etc. Now the emphasis has shifted away from physical security,
and is leaning more towards software-based methods. However, 
in some cases, a certain degree of physical security is in order.

***If you want to prevent people from resetting your CMOS and 
accessing the floppy drives, etc. you have to secure the system 
itself. This can be done by having the computer in a locked room, 
leaving only the screen and keyboard accessible. There are many 
products which let you extend the reach of screen and keyboard cables. 
Even some that let you control many different computers using one 

***There are also security devices available made by companies such as
Anchor Pad, Lucasey, and others that completely enclose the PC.  
These are devices such as lockdown pads, cables for monitors, and 
metal boxes. There are also devices that cover and lock the floppy 
and CD-ROM slots.  

***Computer locks which bind your computer to a desk are good for
discouraging theft.

***To protect your hard disk data, I would suggest investing in a
removable media system that lets you "hot-swap" and lock hard disks. 
The hard disk could then be easily removed (with the *unique* key)
and stored in a safe to prevent theft of data. Drives such as
the Zip (100MB), Ditto (800MB), and Jaz (1GB) are removable as well,
but do not lock. 

Make sure that you test the computer immediately after these
lockdown devices are installed. In some instances the stress induced
on the casing by the devices can cause certain parts to malfunction.

***You can buy devices that prevent the PC electrical cord from 
being unplugged or turned on without a key.

***Investing in a UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) System is worth
the cost. These protect against power fluxes which can damage your
system. In the case of a power out (or if someone trips over the cord),
UPS systems give you 5 minutes of rechargeable battery power to save 
work and perform an emergency shutdown.

***As one last measure of security, it's always nice to invest in
some insurance for your computer. It won't get your data back,
but it *will* give you some peace of mind.

Software-Based Security
Below is a list of measures you can take to secure your system using
software/firmware based methods. They are listed in order of 
increasing security, so minimum security would be only implementing
option #1, maximum security would be implementing #1-8. Keep in
mind that implementing any of these without implementing every item 
below it leaves possible entry points open.

        1. Set up a BIOS password for both the Setup screen *and*
           access to the system.
                a. Make sure the password is not easily guessable
                        (i.e., birthdate, name backwards, etc. are
                         easily guessed) See next section.
                b. Make sure that the password is the maximum possible
                        number of characters supported by the BIOS.
        2. Disable floppy booting from within the BIOS
        3. Disable Bypass of startup files
                a. This is done by adding the line:
                        SWITCHES=/F /N
                   to the CONFIG.SYS file.
                b. Additionally, you might want to precede
                        all statements in the Autoexec.bat
                        with CTTY NUL, and then have CTTY CON
                        as the last line. This prevents breaking
                        out of autoexec.bat
                c. If you use DriveSpace compression, add the
                        following line to your DRVSPACE.INI file:
                        SWITCHES=/F /N
                d. Add the line:
                        BREAK OFF
                   This reduces the number of chances you have to
                   break out of AUTOEXEC.BAT, all though it doesn't
                   switch it off entirely
        4. Set up a DOS-based Security TSR
                a. Make sure you cannot access the floppy drive
                        without a password, and that it allows
                        for write-protection.
                b. Make sure it allows for password protection.
        5. Set up a Windows-Based Security program
                a. Make sure you can control which features of
                        Windows you can limit or disable.
                b. Make sure it allows for password protection.
        6. Instate Windows Security Policies using Policy Editor
                (Described Later)
        7. Install an encrypted filesystem program. (i